the first edition, this time Harold McGee knew that the readers of this revised edition of On Food and Cooking as a fascinating discourse on the nature of the. PDF | Harold McGee, author of best-selling book, On Food And Cooking, talks to Flavour about minerality, academia and molecular. Read On Food and Cooking by Harold McGee for free with a 30 day free trial. Read unlimited* books and audiobooks on the web, iPad, iPhone and Android.
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FOOD. AND. COOKING. The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. COMPLETELY Harold McGee. Illustrations by Patricia Dorfman, Justin Greene, and Ann McGee. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen link-marketing.info On Food and Cooking Harold Mcgee On Food and. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen [Harold McGee] on link-marketing.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A kitchen classic for nearly.
This tropical animal is sensitive to heat it wallows in water to cool down , so it proved adaptable to milder climates. Remove them from Saved? As compulsively readable and engaging as ever, the new On Food and Cooking provides countless eye-opening insights into food, its preparation, and its enjoyment. Bone tissue is constantly being deconstructed and rebuilt throughout our adult lives, so healthy bones require adequate protein and calcium supplies from our diet. These foreign molecules then provoke a defensive response from the immune system, and that response is strengthened each time the infant eats. In , at the age of 84, Nicholas nudged civilization along by organizing an International Workshop on Molecular and Physical Gastronomy at Erice, Sicily, where for the first time professional cooks, basic scientists from universities, and food scientists from industry worked together to advance gastronomy, the making and appreciation of foods of the highest quality. The Science and Lore of the Kitchen on your Kindle in under a minute.
If I had this book when I was in Chemistry, I may have passed high-school chemistry! It is a great deal of information, so you may want to ask if you are a person who loves to know all info possible, but it is very interesting to me!
This is not a cook book but it will help you become a better cook. I am am retired geologist and engineer and have had to take over cooking from my handicapped wife. I wanted a book that explained the chemistry of food and and why we prepare it the way we do, and got much more. I just finished the sections on animals and their products.
I had no idea of the way people around the world handle them. Before I would eat some of them, I would have to be part of a famine of Biblical proportions.
The only thing I don't agree with is his evolutionary history to the advent of historical times. But that is OK because he follows the majority view and it has no impact on the chemistry of food.
This is the perfect book for anyone Showed up before they said it would and in great condition. This is the perfect book for anyone interested in cooking that's also a nerd. There are no recipes in this book, it is more like a textbook that explains anatomy and origins of various ingredients.
Charts that explain the different fat contents in various types of cream I repeat This book explains a lot you didn't know about cooking science. You don't have to be a scientist to understand it - though it does help. This book is really for the inner geek in you. It's nice to know why butter and other milk products are the way they are.
It's nice to know the science behind whipping egg whites to a soft or harder peak. The book also has a bit of the history of cooking want a recipe from the s? Oh, my goodness this the treatise of cooking. Definetly worth the read despite having to push through some pages. I've learned a great deal. Still it feels like the book would be on the required reading list for a college course.
Having said that, the book is written in plain English. I read most books twice. I'm pretty certain I won't read this tome a second time. See all reviews. Amazon Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers.
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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. To their traditionally trained chefs and teachers, understanding food was less important than mastering the tried and true techniques for preparing it. A number of culinary schools now offer experimental courses that investigate the whys of cooking and encourage critical thinking. As science has gradually percolated into the world of cooking, cooking has been drawn into academic and industrial science.
One effective and charming force behind this movement was Nicholas Kurti, a physicist and food lover at the University of Oxford, who lamented in In , at the age of 84, Nicholas nudged civilization along by organizing an International Workshop on Molecular and Physical Gastronomy at Erice, Sicily, where for the first time professional cooks, basic scientists from universities, and food scientists from industry worked together to advance gastronomy, the making and appreciation of foods of the highest quality.
And over the last decade its focus, the understanding of culinary excellence, has taken on new economic significance. The modern industrial drive to maximize efficiency and minimize costs generally lowered the quality and distinctiveness of food products: And so this second edition of On Food and Cooking is substantially longer than the first.
Of the few sections that survive in similar form from the first edition, practically all have been rewritten to reflect fresh information, or my own fresh understanding. This edition gives new emphasis to two particular aspects of food. These days the easy movement of products and people makes it possible for us to taste foods from all over the world.
And traveling back in time through old cookbooks can turn up forgotten but intriguing ideas. The other new emphasis is on the flavors of foods, and sometimes on the particular molecules that create flavor. Flavors are something like chemical chords, composite sensations built up from notes provided by different molecules, some of which are found in many foods.
I give the chemical names of flavor molecules when I think that being specific can help us notice flavor relationships and echoes. Of course people have made and enjoyed well seasoned dishes for thousands of years with no knowledge of molecules.
But a dash of flavor chemistry can help us make fuller use of our senses of taste and smell, and experience more—and find more pleasure—in what we cook and eat. Now a few words about the scientific approach to food and cooking and the organization of this book.
Like everything on earth, foods are mixtures of different chemicals, and the qualities that we aim to influence in the kitchen—taste, aroma, texture, color, nutritiousness—are all manifestations of chemical properties. Nearly two hundred years ago, the eminent gastronome Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin lectured his cook on this point, tongue partly in cheek, in The Physiology of Taste:.
You are a little opinionated, and I have had some trouble in making you understand that the phenomena which take place in your laboratory are nothing other than the execution of the eternal laws of nature, and that certain things which you do without thinking, and only because you have seen others do them, derive nonetheless from the highest scientific principles.
On the other hand, the great virtue of thought and analysis is that they free us from the necessity of following recipes, and help us deal with the unexpected, including the inspiration to try something new. That idea may seem daunting.
There are a hundred-plus chemical elements, many more combinations of those elements into molecules, and several different forces that rule their behavior. But scientists always simplify reality in order to understand it, and we can do the same. Foods are mostly built out of just four kinds of molecules—water, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. And their behavior can be pretty well described with a few simple principles. Most readers today have at least a vague idea of proteins and fats, molecules and energy, and a vague idea is enough to follow most of the explanations in the first 13 chapters, which cover common foods and ways of preparing them.
Chapters 14 and 15 then describe in some detail the molecules and basic chemical processes involved in all cooking; and the Appendix gives a brief refresher course in the basic vocabulary of science. Finally, a request. I will also appreciate the help of reader.. My thanks in advance. As I finish this revision and think about the endless work of correcting and perfecting, my mind returns to the first Erice workshop and a saying shared by Jean-Pierre Philippe, a chef from Les Mesnuls, near Versailles.
The subject of the moment was egg foams.
Chef Philippe told us that he had thought he knew everything there was to know about meringues, until one day a phone call distracted him and he left his mixer running for half an hour. Thanks to the excellent result and to other surprises throughout his career, he said, Je sais, je sais que je sais jamais: I know, I know that I never know.
Volumes and weights are given in both U. One micron is 1 micrometer, or 1 thousandth of a millimeter. Single molecules are so small, a tiny fraction of a micron, that they can seem abstract, hard to imagine. But they are real and concrete, and have particular structures that determine how they—and the foods made out of them—behave in the kitchen.
Many food molecules are built from a backbone of interconnected carbon atoms, with a few other kinds of atoms mainly hydrogen and oxygen projecting from the backbone. The carbon backbone is what creates the overall structure, so often it is drawn with no indications of the atoms themselves, just lines that show the bonds between atoms. What better subject for the first chapter than the food with which we all begin our lives? Humans are mammals, a word that means creatures of the breast, and the first food that any mammal tastes is milk.
Milk is food for the beginning eater, a gulpable essence distilled by the mother from her own more variable and challenging diet. When our ancestors took up dairying, they adopted the cow, the ewe, and the goat as surrogate mothers. These creatures accomplish the miracle of turning meadow and hay into buckets of human nourishment. And their milk turned out to be an elemental fluid rich in possibility, just a step or two away from luxurious cream, fragrant golden butter, and a multitude of flavorful foods concocted by friendly microbes.
No wonder that milk captured the imaginations of many cultures. The ancient Indo-Europeans were cattle herders who moved out from the Caucasian steppes to settle vast areas of Eurasia around BCE; and milk and butter are prominent in the creation myths of their descendents, from India to Scandinavia.
Peoples of the Mediterranean and Middle East relied on the oil of their olive tree rather than butter, but milk and cheese still figure in the Old Testament as symbols of abundance and creation. The modern imagination holds a very different view of milk! Mass production turned it and its products from precious, marvelous resources into ordinary commodities, and medical science stigmatized them for their fat content. Fortunately a more balanced view of dietary fat is developing; and traditional versions of dairy foods survive.
When the gods performed the sacrifice, with the first Man as the offering, spring was the melted butter, summer the fuel, autumn the offering. They anointed that Man, born at the beginning, as a sacrifice on the straw….
From that full sacrifice they gathered the grains of butter, and made it into the creatures of the air, the forest, and the village … cattle were born from it, and sheep and goats were born from it. How and why did such a thing as milk ever come to be? It came along with warm-bloodedness, hair, and skin glands, all of which distinguish mammals from reptiles.
Once it evolved, milk contributed to the success of the mammalian family. It gives newborn animals the advantage of ideally formulated food from the mother even after birth, and therefore the opportunity to continue their physical development outside the womb. The human species has taken full advantage of this opportunity: In this sense, milk helped make possible the evolution of our large brain, and so helped make us the unusual animals we are.
All mammals produce milk for their young, but only a closely related handful have been exploited by humans. Cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, camels, yaks: This shift favored plants that could grow quickly and produce seeds to survive the dry period, and caused a great expansion of grasslands, which in the dry seasons became a sea of desiccated, fibrous stalks and leaves.
So began the gradual decline of the horses and the expansion of the deer family, the ruminants , which evolved the ability to survive on dry grass. Cattle, sheep, goats, and their relatives are all ruminants.
The key to the rise of the ruminants is their highly specialized, multichamber stomach, which accounts for a fifth of their body weight and houses trillions of fiber-digesting microbes, most of them in the first chamber, or rumen. Their unique plumbing, together with the habit of regurgitating and rechewing partly digested food, allows ruminants to extract nourishment from high-fiber, poor-quality plant material. Ruminants produce milk copiously on feed that is otherwise useless to humans and that can be stockpiled as hay or silage.
Without them there would be no dairying. The Cow, European and Indian The immediate ancestor of Bos taurus , the common dairy cow, was Bos primigenius , the long-horned wild aurochs.
The European race was domesticated in the Middle East around BCE, the heat- and parasite-tolerant zebu in south-central Asia around the same time, and an African variant of the European race in the Sahara, probably somewhat later. In its principal homeland, central and south India, the zebu has been valued as much for its muscle power as its milk, and remains rangy and long-horned. The European dairy cow has been highly selected for milk production at least since BCE, when confinement to stalls in urban Mesopotamia and poor winter feed led to a reduction in body and horn size.
To this day, the prized dairy breeds—Jerseys, Guernseys, Brown Swiss, Holsteins—are short-horned cattle that put their energy into making milk rather than muscle and bone. The Buffalo The water buffalo is relatively unfamiliar in the West but the most important bovine in tropical Asia.
Bubalus bubalis was domesticated as a draft animal in Mesopotamia around BCE, then taken to the Indus civilizations of present-day Pakistan, and eventually through India and China. This tropical animal is sensitive to heat it wallows in water to cool down , so it proved adaptable to milder climates. The most notable vestige of that introduction is a population approaching , in the Campagna region south of Rome, which supplies the milk for true mozzarella cheese, mozzarella di bufala.
The Yak The third important dairy bovine is the yak, Bos grunniens. This long-haired, bushy-tailed cousin of the common cow is beautifully adapted to the thin, cold, dry air and sparse vegetation of the Tibetan plateau and mountains of central Asia. It was domesticated around the same time as lowland cattle. Yak milk is substantially richer in fat and protein than cow milk. Tibetans in particular make elaborate use of yak butter and various fermented products.
The Goat The goat and sheep belong to the ovicaprid branch of the ruminant family, smaller animals that are especially at home in mountainous country. The goat, Capra hircus , comes from a denizen of the mountains and semidesert regions of central Asia, and was probably the first animal after the dog to be domesticated, between and BCE in present-day Iran and Iraq. It is the hardiest of the Eurasian dairy animals, and will browse just about any sort of vegetation, including woody scrub.
Its omnivorous nature, small size, and good yield of distinctively flavored milk—the highest of any dairy animal for its body weight—have made it a versatile milk and meat animal in marginal agricultural areas. The Sheep The sheep, Ovis aries , was domesticated in the same region and period as its close cousin the goat, and came to be valued and bred for meat, milk, wool, and fat.
Sheep were originally grazers on grassy foothills and are somewhat more fastidious than goats, but less so than cattle. The Camel The camel family is fairly far removed from both the bovids and ovicaprids, and may have developed the habit of rumination independently during its early evolution in North America.
Camels are well adapted to arid climates, and were domesticated around BCE in central Asia, primarily as pack animals. When and why did humans extend our biological heritage as milk drinkers to the cultural practice of drinking the milk of other animals? Archaeological evidence suggests that sheep and goats were domesticated in the grasslands and open forest of present-day Iran and Iraq between and BCE, a thousand years before the far larger, fiercer cattle. At first these animals would have been kept for meat and skins, but the discovery of milking was a significant advance.
Dairy animals could produce the nutritional equivalent of a slaughtered meat animal or more each year for several years, and in manageable daily increments. Dairying is the most efficient means of obtaining nourishment from uncultivated land, and may have been especially important as farming communities spread outward from Southwest Asia.
Small ruminants and then cattle were almost surely first milked into containers fashioned from skins or animal stomachs. The earliest hard evidence of dairying to date consists of clay sieves, which have been found in the settlements of the earliest northern European farmers, from around BCE. Rock drawings of milking scenes were made a thousand years later in the Sahara, and what appear to be the remains of cheese have been found in Egyptian tombs of BCE.
Early shepherds would have discovered the major transformations of milk in their first containers. When milk is left to stand, fat-enriched cream naturally forms at the top, and if agitated, the cream becomes butter. The remaining milk naturally turns acid and curdles into thick yogurt, which draining separates into solid curd and liquid whey.
Salting the fresh curd produces a simple, long-keeping cheese. As dairyers became more adept and harvested greater quantities of milk, they found new ways to concentrate and preserve its nourishment, and developed distinctive dairy products in the different climatic regions of the Old World. In arid southwest Asia, goat and sheep milk was lightly fermented into yogurt that could be kept for several days, sun-dried, or kept under oil; or curdled into cheese that could be eaten fresh or preserved by drying or brining.
In the high country of Mongolia and Tibet, cow, camel, and yak milk was churned to butter for use as a high-energy staple food. In semitropical India, most zebu and buffalo milk was allowed to sour overnight into a yogurt, then churned to yield buttermilk and butter, which when clarified into ghee p.
Some milk was repeatedly boiled to keep it sweet, and then preserved not with salt, but by the combination of sugar and long, dehydrating cooking see box, p. The Mediterranean world of Greece and Rome used economical olive oil rather than butter, but esteemed cheese.
The Roman Pliny praised cheeses from distant provinces that are now parts of France and Switzerland. And indeed cheese making reached its zenith in continental and northern Europe, thanks to abundant pastureland ideal for cattle, and a temperate climate that allowed long, gradual fermentations.