Luis Inácio Lula da Silva, whom he wrote about in his book "Lula é minha anta" (Lula is my ass, ); to the government, to the leftist politics. One of the major consequences of President Luis Inácio Lula da Silva's . é uma anta”; “Minha empregada é uma besta”; “Minha empregada fala errado”;. Em cismar, sozinho a noite, Mais prazer encontro eu la; Minha terra tem palmeiras (), and the “Manifesto do Verde-Amarelismo, ou da Escola da Anta” (). . Colonel Lula, a pathetic figure in Fogo Morto, is here described as “that.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Hindi|
|Genre:||Academic & Education|
|ePub File Size:||20.58 MB|
|PDF File Size:||13.11 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
Download Lula E Minha Anta book pdf or read power of hope book pdf online books in PDF, EPUB and Mobi Format. Click Download or Read Online button to . West Hollywood Hollywood Book to read Lula e Minha Anta free Jiu Jitsu Piranha Gear Weave Kimono Compare prices.. Fete likely to be website Lula e Minha. da Silva (Lula), the hundreds of cases of litigation brought against Mainardi for defamation of tapas e pontapés () and Lula é minha anta (). 2In spite .
Flights lishes an excellent monthly guide in Portuguese. It For fine views. Av Rio If you have the misfortune of being robbed. Rua Santa Clara 86B. The dirt that maids clean further contaminates their already polluted bodies, thus imprisoning them in a cycle where blackness and poverty are associated with physical strength and corporeal filth. Good parks Amazon rainforest.
It was an industry pottery, trash mounds and skeletons , ar- dominated by bandeirantes, brutal men who cheologists estimate that the first humans hunted the Indians in the interior and cap- may have arrived 50, years ago, predating tured or killed them. Their exploits, more than any other estimates in the whole American any treaty, secured the huge interior of South continent.
America for Portuguese Brazil. The population at the time of the Por- Jesuit priests went to great lengths to pro- tuguese landing in is also a mystery, tect the Indians, a few even arming them and. He stayed on. Equator From until about 3. In Tropic of Capricorn the s gold was discovered in present day Minas Gerais.
But they were too weak to stymie the attacks and the Jesuits were later expelled from Brazil in That at- titude changed. Immigrants flooded the territory. BR Goitacazes Life on the plantations was miserable.
Palmares had He railed against ised to fight corruption and reduce inflation. Throughout peror into exile. Millions came to the cities. Portugal was too weak to fight its presidential candidate. Collor prom- and the end of the world. Brazil remained under the repressive mili- pled the antiquated empire.
At legitimate children. It succeeded only on European monarch. According to legend Pedro responded Vargas responded by writing a ingly powerful parliamentary system. Vargas proved a gifted maneuverer.
Voters for years through poverty-stricken backlands. But it exacted a heavy toll by a series of military and civilian presidents on the country. Brazil suffered a period of civil war. The following year the Portuguese parlia. Coffee remained king until the market col- ment attempted to return Brazil to colonial lapsed during the global economic crisis of status. In a coffee-backed military coup top. Recent Events nity in the northeast.
Until the future emperor reached ad. When their Pedro I. He scan. In Dom Pedro II ascended the throne He remained in and out of the political scene with overwhelming public support. Ignored social problems grew through which the armed forces effectively dire. In With economy. Dom Pedro I ruled for nine years. During until One of the first challenges to the new re- public came from a small religious commu. Juscelino Kubitschek.
Lula remains an economic boom. The gorgeous landscape is a favorite measures. One need only have patience. In Lula. Given the numbers. Fernando Henrique Cardoso. Lula rose to be. From a humble many works by Jobim. Kindness is both common- who had envisioned a left-leaning renegade place and expected. Fifty million Brazilians lived Famed for their Carnaval. In fact.
The idea appears in time. The most serious allega. A charges of corruption — accused of heading a huge shake-up in the government followed. This prised friends and foes alike with one of the altruism comes in handy in a country noted most financially prudent administrations in for its bureaucracy and long lines. At times. The scandal never quite touched Itamar Franco replaced Collor and intro. Brazilians take much pride in their ward education.
Brazilians love in serious poverty. He later founded the Workers to the deep regret over past mistakes. Lula also raised the minimum wage economy. Party PT. Lula has made employment a top priority.
Moraes and other great working-class background. Not so easily deterred. Sport of Recife and Cruzeiro of Belo Horizonte. The latest arrival is evangelical Chris- Lebanese and others. The the traditions and stories of their ancestors. Fluminense and Vasco parading through the streets. Games are an intense is rampant. The season goes on highway. The favelas take center stage. Most Brazilian culture has been shaped by the Por- people acknowledge that Brazilians play the tuguese.
Drug lords rule the streets. Major clubs include different ways. Brazilians The Afro-Brazilian religions emerged when are more prone to mention regional types the colonists prohibited slaves from practicing when speaking of the racial collage.
Immigration is only part of the picture especially in poorer areas. Since then the animism of the indigenous people. By contrast. In Bahia and Rio. Many live in modern fortresses. Following his success The Pilgrimage launched his career in the with Cidade de Deus. He was strongly influenced by Orpheus. Assis had a great sense of from poverty to become successful country humor and an insightful — though cynical — musicians.
Eles Me. For a taste of the dictatorship days see tect for the new capital. Salgado has earned international ac. His new-age fables The Alchemist and brutality of a Rio favela. Over the centuries. His major novels were For a trip back to s Rio. Motocicleta The Motorcycle Diaries. Diamantina and Ti. Noted for his masterful use of When it was released.
Architecture Walter Salles. Set dur- Mexican muralists like Diego Rivera. Meirelles went Hol. An- strong. In the Amazon.
Elis Regina. Brazil borders Tropicalismo. Known for writing addictive rhythms. Djavan and the Amazon Basin. More than formerly of Planet Hemp impressing audi. Groups and artists such as Zeca neiro and Budapest.
Leading figures such as Gilberto Gil and Brazil has four primary geographic regions: Caetano Veloso are still very much around. China and the USA. Ed Motta. North of Bahia. Kid Abelha. The most widely Samba.
In the west the basin is km wide. The most popular form of zabumba an African drum beats with ac- samba today is pagode. Stars of this style include Luiz genre whose leading exponents include sing. Its 8. The Amazon Perfeita Pico da Neblina the release of Cru Chile and Ecuador.
Seu Jorge. The narrow. Its red and The drought also caused major forest fires. The biggest is the flightless. For example the features breathtaking views and impressive rock formations. Only a handful of species pose a risk. Many species live in the state parks or extractive reserves. It ranks third for birds and Over areas are protected as national parks. In Amazonia or the Pantanal you than 70 mammals are endangered. The brilliantly colored parrots. At last count more 1. River levels dropped dramatically.
Good parks Amazon rainforest. All its caws. Environmental Issues Birds form a major proportion of the wild. The infamous piranha of Brazil. Brazil has several gateway airports and shares Brazil. Map p Better deals. Along with the new arrivals came loggers and cattle ranchers. Aerosur and Aerocon fly controversial project. Av NS de Copacabana A Brazilian website to search for cheap erners a chance to better their lives on newly flights is www.
If not. Varig www. Other flights from Buenos cities widely employed slash-and-burn agri. Rio government cleared roads through the jungle arranges economical itineraries.
Aires go to Porto Alegre. Varig flies into Brazil the airport before departure — so remember from 11 South American cities.
Both selva flies to Leticia. A newly opened served by Buenos Aires buses. Curitiba and Georgetown Guyana. From Tabatinga you can continue Colombia. Further south. Other desti- Meta. Peruvian airliner Avia.
Rio de Janeiro del Este. Paramaribo Suri. Gol flies from Montevideo to Rio Branco. Get there early in the morning Direct buses run between Buenos Aires to catch one. Colombia on the Brazil— towns have bus links into their respective Peru—Colombia triple frontier. French Guiana. You can cross the border on foot. Porto Alegre. Other cross. Gol is the cheapest of the air- Lethem southwest Guyana is a short boat lines.
Rivera—Santana do Livramento. This route is only open during the dry season. Holy Week and Easter. Varig or another Star Alliance airline see. Buses run A few provisos: You wade across In order to secure a seat. Airline tickets can be hour bus ride from Boa Vista. At other times. TAM both offer a Brazil Airpass. Paved roads run from northern Venezuela to Given the astronomical prices of flights.
The latter gives access ciently. Rico and Meta. Isidoro Noblia— other countries in southern South America. Direct buses run between to reconfirm your flights. Buses run between Montevideo and For flights solely within Brazil.
The cheapest. Familiar multina- Basin traveling to or from Peru or Bolivia. The Amazon region is one of the last great All that said. The price is displayed near wiches and drinks. BUS distance buses. Many buses list their toilet. Overnight buses. But Road quality varies from well-paved roads even this can be difficult.
The Rio somewhat expensive way to get around Bra- Negro. Local Transport There are three main classes of long. With TAM Airpasses. Ordinary gasoline costs Rio Amazonas. The executivo provides roomier seats. Bus Hitching Buses are the backbone of long-distance trans. Hitchhiking in Brazil. Driving or so per kilometer prices increase at night.
You should also carry p Usually you can simply show up at the packed times: Most corridor. Another peril is the police. A small four-seat rental car costs around are the highways of Amazonia. Rio had elsewhere in the world. Santa Teresa and parts of in Ipanema. The Other areas of interest include the colo- Portuguese. Favela-Bairro project. Gorgeous mountains. Unfortunately the expensive hotels.
Further south are Copacabana. Botafogo and Urca believing it a river. As and internal migration by ex-slaves. The French were actually Sugar Loaf. South guese explorers. By Rio replaced Salvador If possible. Rio occupies one of the most spectacular in By nightfall samba. You can surf great breaks off the Zona Sul. Thanks to sugar plan. Make sure the driver turns developed into an important settlement.
Sometimes the grew substantially during the Minas Gerais fare is fixed — typically on trips between the gold rush of the 18th century. Cen- there are plenty of residents — expats included — tro. The worst place to get a cab is where the when it became an exotic destination for in- tourists are. Quatro Rodas produces an excellent city Internet Access map. Av Rio Branco Centro. Centro Cultural do Banco do Brasil Map p Av NS de Copacabana A.
Lonely Planet Youth hostels and larger hotels provide inter- also produces a city map. You can transfer to the metro at Carioca station.. Av Rio Branco Catete Bookstores Tele Rede Map p For Co- pacabana. Flamengo and Botafogo and along the beaches of Copacabana. Santos Dumont airport. Ipanema Map p Taxis from the international airport may try to rip you off.
Rua Correia Dutra 39B. Av Rio free street maps. The safest course. Branco If you arrive in Rio by bus. Ipanema An Ipanema favorite with English- language newspapers and magazines. A small booth near the Riotur desk on the 1st floor of the bus station organizes the yellow cabs in the rank out front. Av Francisco Bicalho. Local buses.
Heading to the airports. Ipanema and Leblon to Barra da Tijuca and vice-versa. International airport Map p Copacabana Map p Terminal 1. Av Nossa Senhora de lodging in Rio.
Ipanema Riotur Centro Map p Correios post offices are prevalent through. Copacabana Tele Rede Map pp Rio Ipanema Map p Praia de Botafogo Mail addressed to Posta-Restante.
Rua Miguel Couto 35C. Rua Senador Dantas agency that can arrange discounted flights and find budget English-speaking receptionists provide toll-free Hospital Ipanema Map p Thieves are only too will- Moraes ing to use their weapons if given provocation. Take taxis at night to avoid Vargas. Andes Sol Map p Av Nossa Senhora de Copa.
Like other metropolitan destinations. Centro you travel sensibly when visiting the city. Rua Prudente de Morais only spending money for the day and avoid the crowded sections.
Try Banco do Brasil. Rio de Get in the habit of carrying small bills sepa- Janeiro. The beaches are also targets for thieves. Av Princesa Isabel city center and take nothing of value to the Av Nossa Senhora de Copacabana football stadium is worth a visit. The international airport has Banco do Travel Agencies Brasil machines on the 3rd floor and cur.
Av Rio If you have the misfortune of being robbed. Central Fone Centro Map p Rua assistance. All the same. Centro holds especially true for Centro. See p for other tips on how to avoid cabana becoming a victim. In Centro. Posto 9. Cosme Velho and pulses with an energy unknown else.
Map p offers similarly prostitutes and favela kids all a part of the fantastic views over Rio. To get Arpoador. Sunset is the gathering spot for the beauty crowd. Rua das Palmeiras Choose a clear day to visit. For more on this area. You can go by taxi. In addition to sand. Santa Teresa Centro Set on a hill overlooking the city. Map pp Santa Ter. Rua Murtinho Nobre cupying the former 18th-century colonial Dozens of restaurants and bars line Hunchback.
Atop the m-high peak known as Corcovado where. Santa Teresa district. Take care on weekends. Currently the residence of a new genera. Posto 11 in Leblon attracts cable car. Rio has doz. All along the or Flamengo. The gorgeous curving beach of Copacabana Map p stretches 4. To reach the summit you can go by the gay section. Loom- aging mansions. To reach the train. Sun free. The peaceful streets of Urca Map pp—9 offer a welcome escape from the urban bustle.
Bo 1 Bradesco ATM R Vaz Citibank Av c Vi. A s Hippie Fair R Gilbe Cantagalo. R Fadel Fareir a edeir. Av Ba a. Guilhem 52 A R Paul Redfern. RA Che Lagarto The good contemporary shows in a 19th-century sq km refuge of the Parque Nacional da neoclassical building. R Bento Lisboa l Cate R Ar ac rq turo ed ue Ber o. RP Machado o. RE ira Largo do Assis. Mach e R Alic. R Paulo Laranjeiras.
Abra ado. Flamengo os. RM ar. B R Muniz Barr. Morro do a evereir Rd. Pasmado la s Pa. Valv lv v eria sma. Av ern. R He Ar Rio de Janeiro on. Stop in history makes for some fascinating explor. Walking through into to Santa Teresa p Just and the ultramodern Catedral Metropolitana 4.
Up on the serts. At lunchtime and after work. Distance 3. A Just north looms the Teatro Municipal 1. The Copacabana branch has a bit more of a val site www.
Hotel Vermont Map p Rua Paul Redfern Before an exuber. Top schools compete on Carnaval Sunday Che Lagarto www. Ipanema Sweet Map p The rooms are indeed shabby. Nightclubs and bars throw special cos. February 14 and abana Map p Dozens of hostels have opened in recent years.
Blocos in Santa Teresa www. The parade through the sam. There are also free live con. By Carnaval party vibe. Copac- ruary 22 and 23 in Rua Anita Garibaldi No These consist of a procession of this friendly. The young Brazilian owners are laundry Hotel Toledo Map p A block from the beach Travessa Angrense 25A Two pools Simple furnished.. The rooms Hotel Santa Clara Map p Santa Teresa. The equation here is simple: Accommodations range from modest Fontes Map p Zona Sul supermarket Map p Rua Pascoal Carlos Magno 5.
Other possibilities are the open-air restaurants on the eastern and western edge Santa Teresa of the lake Lagoa and along Rua Joaquim Rio Hostel Map p Check The colonial facade of the Riazor hides bat.
Rooms range 29 A good place to assemble cheap meals. Leblon has the best options. Rua Miguel Lemos 21B. Rua do Catete Rua Prudente de Moraes exit and explore the city.
Rua Joaquim Murtinho. Rua Conde Ber- Loaf. Rua Silveira Martins Rua Yonza Map p Rua Gomes Carneiro fers spartan accommodations. New Natural Map p Murtinho in Santa Teresa. Rua Francisco Otaviano Upstairs rooms are best. Other Catete cheapies: For fancier fare. Kilograma Map p Samba clubs. Leblon school restaurant is a Santa Teresa favorite. Rua Rita Ludolf 87B.
Cervantes Map p Av Infante Dom Henrique- bar serves tasty bites in a hurry. Bar midnight A top juice bar. Av NS de Copa. Rua do Mercado Rua da Carioca Nova Capela Map p Expect filling crepes and a young crowd. Rua Almirante Alexandrino Bakers Map p Rua Ronald de Carvalho 55C.
Espirito Santa Map p Rua Duvivier 28A. Around the corner Rua Barato Ribeiro restaurant. If you can read a bit of serves tasty platters of hummus. Rua Farme de Amoedo Rua Dias Ferreira Rua Santa Clara 86B. Deli sandwiches are also has excellent Amazonian dishes that can be a good value.
Bar do Mineiro Map p Veja Rio insert in Veja magazine. The cabrito goat is tops. Polis Sucos Map p Av Prado Junior B. Espirito Santa strudels and coffee. Parque dos Patins. Ipanema favorite. Av Delfim Moreira The music begins around 8pm. Devassa Carioca da Gema is a small. Moreira 2nd fl. Rua do Riachuelo Allegro Bistro Musical Map p MPB and jazz.
Av Borges den gems among the cognoscenti. Rua Cosme Velho Bip Bip is a de Medeiros. Copa- is the drink of choice. Carioca Da Gema Map p Marina All Suites. Bands start Leblon This colorful Mexican restaurant and around 9pm. Rua General San Martin Near Lagoa. Lapa Devassa Map p The best nights are Monday. Botafogo has authentic carioca bars. The lakeside kiosks in Parque Brigadeiro Faria Lima are a favorite date place. Balconies overlook Garota de Ipanema Map p A festive crowd fills the dance floor.
Rua do Lavradio Rua Rainha Guilhermina Leblon has many choices along the western end of Av General San Martin. Rua Barata Ribeiro One of numerous samba clubs on this street.
Cosme Velho. While Ipanema has scattered options. The safest seats are on the lower level planetarium. Rua Rita Ludolf Baronneti Map p The schools are in La Vereda Map p Leblon This up. Flu- to explore — lounge. In September. Drag shows are the fare during the week. Ipanema their rehearsals to the public. Markets Fosfobox Map p Feira do Nordestino Map p Rua Silva Teles Le Boy Map p The crowds. Good DJs and excellent you from descending objects like dead chick- rotating parties attract mixed dance-happy ens and urine-filled bottles no joke!
Rua Almirante Alexandrino Casa da Matriz Map pp Check with Music Riotur for schedules and locations. Vasco da Gama and Botafogo. Ipanema This lesbian bar is in a leafy party of Ipanema and serves great drinks. Botafogo This avant-garde place year-round and can happen any day of space in Botafogo has numerous little rooms the week. Most hostels organize outings if you want to hook up with a group. Ipanema drink and join the party. Casa da Lua Map p Cabaret Casa Nova Map p On the beaches.
To get to the stadium take the metro to 00 Zero Zero. Rua Farme do Amoedo 87A Though not exclusively a gay bar. Modern Sound Map p Hippie Fair Map p Melt Map p Games take. Rua Henrique Novaes Rua Siqueira Campos Bar Bofetada Map p Excellent buses leave the Costa Verde Green Coast.
Av Rio Branco others. Rua Francisco Muratori 2A. Also see Getting Into Town way to get around some parts of the city. Gol tickets can be purchased in cash at any travel agency. Nine out of 10 buses going Rio buses are frequent and cheap. Porto Alegre 26 90 Rio-lovers aside. In the opposite direction.
Approximate traveling Grande and the elegant colonial town of times and fares to sample destinations: The buses are. The flat rate is offices in the city: Av Francisco Bicalho about 2km some spectacular destinations are less than northwest of Centro. Ipanema south from the center will go to Copacabana. Rua Rodolfo Dantas Many international airlines have Taxi offices on or near Av Rio Branco.
Belo Horizonte. For Gramsci, newspapers, theater, radio, and cinema are sites where intellectuals should intervene in order to scrutinize dominant conceptions and create a new language, or worldview, since these are sources that contribute to disseminating the uncoordinated features that make up the collective form of thought of a particular place and period. My analysis of representations of domestic workers in Brazilian common sense also relies on my own participation in, and observation of, domestic life in Brazil, the country where I was born and raised.
Although I have lived in the US for the last twelve years, at least once a year I travel back to Brazil and spend between four and twelve weeks at a time with my Brazilian family. Besides enabling me to become privy to the opinions and expectations of my relatives and friends regarding their domestic workers, these trips have allowed me to participate in the domestic life of these middle-class house- holds and observe the interactions between these families and their maids.
I should explain that domestic workers have fiercely resisted, both individually and collectively, their gendered, racial, and class-based oppression. Unions of domestic workers exist in most major Brazilian cities, and they have been successful in bringing about significant changes in terms of legal rights and work benefits.
One of the advantages of employing this theoretical meridians Despite being frequently celebrated as a moment of break from the past—for example, May 13, the date when the Princess Isabel signed the Abolition Law, is a national holiday—the transition from slavery to free labor in Brazil was in fact a much slower process, and one that is not completely over. Of the total of 7. One of the most pervasive of these traces is the frequent authoritarianism with which members of the middle and upper classes conceive of and treat manual workers.
The accommodation of a live-in maid is usually small, and positioned in the rear area of the home, hidden from sight.
Ventilation and light are reduced as many of these accommodations lack windows. This happened as late as As she grew old and sick, she was relegated to a little dark and smelly room located behind the casa-grande. This is frequently what happens in living rooms and bedrooms.
Because the body of the maid is imagined as inherently polluted, she is expected never to sit on beds or sofas. Although perceived as benevolent gestures, these practices serve to keep the class boundaries and the structure of domination very much in place.
According to Donna Goldstein, paternalism functions as an euphemiza- tion of power relations, and as the official script to accommodate domina- tion: Despite the national narratives of racial democracy and cordiality, Brazilian society is widely permeated by hierar- chical and authoritarian practices.
Social relations are predominantly grounded on the notion that one is superior and entitled to give orders and the other is inferior and expected to obey. Skin color, gender, age, body language, clothing, and the ability to employ the rules of Portuguese grammar comprise the main aspects of how individuals are interpreted and classified within these authoritarian practices.
Among the traces left by slavery in present-day dynamics of domestic work is that, besides carrying out the low-rated labors of cooking, washing, cleaning toilets, and taking care of children, maids are also usually expected to provide emotional labor, by demonstrating affection, loyalty, and even gratitude to the family who hires them.
This information was collected as respondents reacted to one of the four vignettes that comprised the structured interview employed in the ethnog- raphy.
The vignette consists of a short story read aloud for the interviewee, and that asks their opinion about how the characters should behave. Reacting to the vignette about Dona Margarida, an upper-middle-class male interviewee complained that his maid kept too much to herself and he would like her to be more emotionally involved with his three-year old daughter.
One of the female interviewees, who worked as a maid during the time of the research, was very down-to-earth in her response: The research in Campinas showed that children in middle- and upper- class households expected to be pampered by the maids, and to boss them around.
As described by Silva, to be served by a lower-class—and, I would add, usually non-white—woman has been part of their growing up Silva Middle- and upper-class children expect to be waited on by maids and nannies, and the children of the domestic workers are also expected to inherit the class positionality of their parents. Contempt for Manual Labor and Ridicule of the Poor Middle- and upper-class identities in Brazil are grounded in the habit of having others do manual labor.
Thus, another major trace left by slavery in Brazilian common sense is the stigma attached to manual labor and, consequently, to manual laborers. Slavery also firmly associated manual labor with blackness, and vice- versa.
Although having a white servant was a sign of status, this was belied by the constant intimi- dation presented by her whiteness.
Constructed as binary opposites, and representatives of a two-sided Brazil, these two women and their otherwise conflicting worlds were firmly bonded by emotion and loyalty. Although Freyre did not deny the existence of patriarchy and brutality in master—slave relations, the supposedly stronger bonds of intimacy and affection ultimately overcame antagonism and oppression.
Goldstein argues that middle- and upper-class Brazilians take pride in being different from, and even the opposite of, their maids.
A newspaper article about the increasing professionalization of domestic work employs mockery and conceit to describe the increasing purchasing power of maids. In a similar vein is a joke posted on a website that publishes reviews and comparisons of electronic devices.
The joke revolves around a photo- graph that equates an iron with a computer: During the field research, we heard several stories about maids who had broken a machine in the past or had ruined it with excessive cleaning, such as one case in which the maid used caustic soda to clean a stove.
I consider this particular episode as revealing three important characteristics of representa- tions of domestic workers in Brazilian common sense. Second, because maids are often conceived of as cheap, disposable labor, they are frequently instructed to carry out nonstop cleaning of the household and its objects. Household technologies are perceived by middle- and upper-class Brazilians as devices aimed at reducing their own labor in the home, but not the labor of the maid.
These interconnected representations and practices are discussed in more detail below. Rough, Dirty Bodies and Rigid Identity Boundaries Although patroas sometimes participate in household activities, they mainly supervise the work of maids upon whom the more laborious and dirtiest tasks are invariably imposed.
The proximity to human excrement required in toilet cleaning, or the excruciating position of kneeling down to scrub floors are jobs relegated to those perceived as naturally stronger and dirtier.
These notions are not exclusive to Brazil. In her important book Doing the Dirty Work, Bridget Anderson argues that domestic workers do not simply substitute for the work of their female employers; they often carry out tasks that no woman with a choice would be prepared to under- take Anderson , There was a striking consistency, especially among middle- and upper-class respondents, in their answers to the questions that dealt either directly or indirectly with the presence of maids in the households.
One example is that tasks were not made easier for the maids as their bodies were perceived as sources of endless labor. This was confirmed by the fact that, in the few households that did have a dishwasher, this device was mostly or only used when the maid was not present.
One of the questions in the interview asked about how and when dishes were washed. As Marshall Sahlins argues, human cultures are not merely formu- lated out of practical activity and utilitarian interest. By overlooking the cultural mean- ings of utility and reducing it to an economic means—end calculus, we run the risk of further naturalizing inequality.
Grounded on the idea that some individuals are the supposed enunciators of knowledge while others are just passive receptors, competent discourse contributes to naturalize power asymmetries since it overshadows the fact that access to specific types of knowledge originates from previously established social positions.
The body of the maid, like all human bodies, is produced within discourse, or what Michel Foucault defined as a group of statements that provide a language to talk about a particular topic at a particular historical moment Foucault As it produces the object of knowledge, discourse defines how the object will be socially regulated. Notions of lower and higher degrees of humanness were most forcibly put forward in the discourses and practices that permeated the enslavement of Africans in the New World.
Freyre romantically depicted the relationship between the black wet-nurse and the white children she breastfed as proof and metaphor of Brazilian harmonious racial relations. For the homes of the middle and upper classes to function, they had to bring in servants who were identified as carriers of diseases since they belonged to the disorderly and dirty world of the street.
The bourgeois fear of maids as carriers of fatal diseases was also repre- sented in fictional literature. In her pedagogical project of preparing upper-class Brazilian women to fulfill their roles as dedicated mothers, meridians The hegemonic representations of the black female body were, to a great extent, a result of the idealization of the white female body in a colonial Brazil where the ideal of white womanhood required notions of physical fragility and idleness.
Although representations of blackness as dirty and whiteness as clean were widely disseminated during the almost four centuries of the enslave- ment of Africans and their descendants in the Americas, this distinction became more firmly drawn in the nineteenth century, especially among women.
The ideal of the middle-class housewife in Western countries has required offering the family a clean, and preferably spotless, home while maintaining an equally impeccable bodily appearance. Phyllis Palmer shows how this paradox played out in the context of the United States in the s—40s: The cultural meanings of dirt are also closely connected to representa- tions of beauty.
Although we tend to value eyesight over other senses, aesthetics is not limited to visuality. It includes the tactile and the sense of the smell of the body. There is usually a little hidden bathroom to be used exclusively by the maid. Families with live-in maids frequently purchase toilet paper, soap, and toothpaste of inferior quality for them. On Orkut alone, there were more than communities of Brazilians dedicated to discussing their maids.
The dirt that maids clean further contaminates their already polluted bodies, thus imprisoning them in a cycle where blackness and poverty are associated with physical strength and corporeal filth. Even more important, however, is the legacy of slavery in Brazilian common sense, which is closely tied to the characteristics that distinguish the Brazilian case from domestic work in other countries, despite the existence of commonalities.
In addition to the greater availability of jobs, the lower classes have also benefited from greater access to education, thus breaking the cycle where the daughters of domestic workers were also doomed to become domestic workers. Between and , the number of domestic workers dropped from 1,, to 1,,, and their salaries received the significant boost of 5. News reports point to the novelty that now, because they are scarcer, maids are becoming more demanding: Now they are the ones who chose meridians Then someone suggested that we go around the circle so that, one by one, we expressed our wishes for It was then that one of my cousins held her cham- pagne flute up in the air and said: I need a maid!
I desper- ately need a maid! Probably the greatest trace left by slavery in Brazil is not the ordinariness of paying somebody else to carry out the undervalued labor of cleaning, but the fact that this very ordinariness remains unquestioned.
Acknowledgements I am grateful to Elizabeth B. Silva for the great learning experiences that I had while partaking in her ethnography in Campinas in and while carrying out the British Academy Visiting Fellowship at the Open University in Notes 1. Elizabeth Silva award-holder was responsible for the overall direction and coordination of the project.
Since I submitted this article to Meridians in August , the academic research on domestic workers has increased significantly in Brazil.
A postdoctoral research fellowship awarded by the British Academy supported my stay in the UK in Spring , where I was affiliated with the Open University. A recent and important publication that analyzes the unions of domestic workers in Brazil is Bernardino-Costa et al.
Kauffman, quoted in Kofes , The book teaches the patroa how to deal with the maid and hence better exercise her intermediary role. The author provides tips for how the patroa can talk to the maid in a way that establishes, at the same time, camaraderie and distinction between them. I argue that meridians For more on the importance of smell for aesthetics, see Pinho ; b; and Again, these practices are not exclusive to Brazil.
Anderson describes similar practices in Europe: Orkut was a social networking and discussion site operated by Google and composed of a wide variety of online communities focusing on different interests. Although it has now been phased out, especially due to the popular- ity of Facebook, it was very popular in Brazil where it had the most members, after India. In Portuguese, respectively: Neri Works Cited Anderson, Bridget. Doing the Dirty Work: The Global Politics of Domestic Labour. Zed Books.
O Negro na Telenovela Brasileira. Centro Feminista de Estudos e Assessoria. March Cultura e Democracia: O Discurso Competente e Outras Falas. DaMatta, Roberto. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Rocco. Dias, Maria Odila Silva.
Power and Everyday Life: New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Douglas, Mary. Purity and Danger. London and New York: Feminist Review Collective, eds. Feminist Review