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Seminar report on cyborg pdf

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On the basis of the similarity between brain function partition and corresponding computing counter- parts, we presented a hierarchical and conceptual framework for cyborg intelligence. In order to increase the capabilities of a human we will introduce a cyber org in the body which amplifies the capabilities of the person. This will mean movement type signals and emotional type signals can transmit from my body to the computer, but also the other For Download Visit http: Master Technician. The rules for cybernetic damage are as follows: Such research would promote new mechanisms and computing architectures in cognitive architectures. I know when I put it in my mouth, the Matrix is telling my brain that it is juicy and delicious!

Beginning Technician. The character can do 'dry' work only work only on exterior mechanical objects that are basically machines. The character can repair only minor functions of cybernetics which have lost no more than 3 STC.

Each hour of work and a successful roll will restore 1 point of STC and the damage points that went with it. A roll is needed to repair each minor function the exact time is up to the GM--usually around 10 minutes to 2 hours.

Level 2: The character can repair or replace most types of cybernetics. The character can work on the neural links that connect cybernetics to muscles, repair major functions, etc. The repair times as above are halved but the character is at a cumulative -1 for each point of STC lost above 3. Level 3: Expert Technician. Level 4: Master Technician. The master can work without proper equipment usually at a -5—some things can't be repaired without equipment.

The master gets a roll to repair even critically damaged cybernetics. The cyborg has had its internal systems upgraded to withstand exceptional damage. Arteries are reinforced with micro-strands of polymer, lymph fluid is enhanced along with biological blood additives to reduce bleeding and speed recovery. Layers of internal. STAT attack rolls.

It does not apply to wound rolls of any sort. The cyborg has been redesigned so that vital systems are compartmentalized. This makes the cyborg hard to kill in two ways: The character has a complex of blood filters, improved lung and heart muscles, selective blood pressure devices specially keyed for high stress situations. This gives the character some resistance to. Relatively cheap, it will be one of the first thing cybernetic soldiers are fitted with.

The cyborg is fitted with lungs that can store and meter compressed air to the character. Shell is an artificially grown replacement for the dermis and epidermis skin. It is alive vat grown but requires a reinforced skeleton for anchor points and nutrient systems. Its purpose is similar to polymer armor in that it is protective but more than simply stopping damage, it prevents tears and rips and bleeding.

Each level gives the Cyborg some armor treated as bio-armor and an Dept. Shell shifts wounds down one category for bleeding purposes only. It may look normal or be created in designer colors. Biological nerves are slow: This can be improved upon—the nerve trunks can be replaced with spun glass and electrical switch junctions. Hardwired reflexes give the character a higher REA score and an even higher initiative roll. The character will have a higher ground speed.

At the basic level the patch can only be used to solve math problems extremely quickly and then, only if the character has Level 2 or higher Mathematics skill—otherwise that virtue will be. Additionally, the patch gives the character an effectively higher RES for computer skill.

It is beyond the scope of these rules to completely specify all the possibilities for these, however if the game world includes this development indeed, the real world may include some version of it within 50 years then a neural jack is all that is required to access it. The chip slot requires a neural jack.

Once a character is fitted he can buy skill chips usually sold on the open market and simply insert the chip to know the skill. A chip usually contains a MEM or RES based skill at Level 2 proficiency or it can contain a database of a specific sort holding several Gigabytes of data on some topic mixed drinks, classic cars, rules of card games.

Some very rare and super expensive chips contain Level 3 skills. These take two slot locations.

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The skills themselves exist in the interconnections of a chemical matrix within the chip housing—copying them has proven impossible: The type of jack determines what level the skill can be used at a Mark 1 jack will only allow the skill to be used at Level 1 regardless of the level on the chip.

The jack type also determines the speed of extraction. A Mark1 jack retrieves data at close to the speed of reading—but higher-grade jacks make the use much more natural.

The world of the cyberpunk will be connected by massive data- trunks that anyone can tap into if they have a computer, the skill, and maybe some help. Virtually everything is in there somewhere— or someone knows how to find it. To purchases these abilities you must have a Mk 2 Neural Jack or better. Anyone with computer skill and Electronic Underground and a net account can interact with the DataNet.

Interacting Fugue Dancing with the Fugue is another matter altogether. Secondly you need a piece of hardware in your head that takes the data in and filters it through your brain. To be a Fugue Dancer or whatever the GM decides to call it you need three things:. The Fugue perhaps named for the musical reference—or perhaps the state of mind is meaningless information overload for those not equipped with a Sieve.

With the Sieve it is like an almost omniscient deity—one which the equipped can access. The skill with the I-Sieve is Fugue Dancer. It is a difficult RES based skill. What it does at each level is based on what kinds of modules you have built into your I-Sieve. It has no description but its roll and level effects are determined by what modules you have.

A cyborg with neural cybernetics can tap into the data streams around him. The Bolo is an illegal piece of gear which, when activated disrupts all communications and some electronics in the area. When activated, a bolo burns for a listed number of seconds.

While burning all com-gear of a lower level than the class of bolo will be shut down within the listed radius. If the GM rules that some piece of gear is particularly unshielded it may even burn it out. Standard security systems and electronic gear in the area will be shutdown if the listed roll is made. This only works against things like cameras, personal computers, and the like. A Bolo is primarily used to give. Activating a Bolo is a 5 REA medium action—it can be shutdown before its time runs out if the character wishes.

Cybernetic communications gear is very common.

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Troops will have built in radios. Common citizens will have internal cell-phones. Hackers will come equipped with their own modems and cops will be wired into police channels. The most important aspects of these communications are their signal strength how easy they are to jam and their security how easy they are to detect or intercept.

Both security and strength is rated from Mk1 to Mk3.

This rating is also used to determine if the piece of com-gear can be jammed by a bolo. Security is used to stop people from listening. At Level 1, the conversation is as secure as a standard phone connection—not very.

At Level 2 the piece of gear has weak encryption. At Level 3 the gear has strong encryption. The character can broadcast and receive on several bands. The phone acts as a. Cyber phones are assumed to do conference calls and have all the modern amenities. Fast Modem: The GM must determine what fast is but it should be significantly faster than a normal modem modern day this would be K vs.

Very Fast Modem: Tight Beam Radio: So long as the receiving character is in range and the sender knows exactly where he is i. STAT attack rolls. Enhanced Cardiovascular System It does not apply to wound rolls of any sort. Relatively cheap. It is alive vat grown but requires a reinforced Shell Shell is an artificially grown replacement for the dermis and epidermis skin. This is applied against any damage from temperature changes including rapid ones like flame throwers.

This gives the character some resistance to toxins and disease. The plus to ground speed will be added to sprint. This can be improved upon—the nerve trunks can be replaced with spun glass and electrical switch junctions. Each level gives the Cyborg some armor treated as bio-armor and an unusually high penetration defense. Shell shifts wounds down one category for bleeding purposes only. Its purpose is similar to polymer armor in that it is protective but more than simply stopping damage.

The character will have a higher ground speed. Hardwired reflexes give the character a higher REA score and an even higher initiative roll. It may look normal or be created in designer colors.

At the basic level the patch can only be used to solve math The type of jack determines what level the skill can be used at a Mark 1 jack will only allow the skill to be used at Level 1 regardless of the level on the chip.

Most skills on chips have a The jack type also determines the speed of These take two slot locations. It is beyond the scope of these rules to completely specify all the possibilities for these. The skills themselves exist in the interconnections of a chemical matrix within the chip housing—copying them has proven impossible: Many cyberpunk games feature a sort of virtual-reality Internet where people can interact.

Once a character is fitted he can buy skill chips usually sold on the open market and simply insert the chip to know the skill. Some very rare and super expensive chips contain Level 3 skills. The chip slot requires a neural jack. A chip usually contains a MEM or RES based skill at Level 2 proficiency or it can contain a database of a specific sort holding several Gigabytes of data on some topic mixed drinks. Secondly you need a piece of hardware in your head that takes the data in and filters it through your brain.

RES based Fugue Dancer skill To be a Fugue Dancer or whatever the GM decides to call it you need three things: A Mark1 jack retrieves data at close to the speed of reading—but higher-grade jacks make the use much more natural.

Interacting Fugue Dancing with the Fugue is another matter altogether. Virtually everything is in there somewhere— or someone knows how to find it. To purchases these abilities you must have a Mk 2 Neural Jack or better. Anyone with computer skill and Electronic Underground and a net account can interact with the DataNet. The Fugue perhaps named for the musical reference—or perhaps the state of mind is meaningless information overload for those not equipped with a Sieve. It is a difficult RES based skill.

RES based skill. All kinds of information. What it does at each level is based on what kinds of modules you have built into your I-Sieve. With the Sieve it is like an almost omniscient deity—one which the equipped can access. It has no description but its roll and level effects are determined by what modules you have. To make a cyborg with access to the Fugue. The skill with the I-Sieve is Fugue Dancer.

Some of it might be 3d and some of it might still be scrolling text screens. It is the global network of interconnected computers. A huge amount of information is there. Bolo The Bolo is an illegal piece of gear which. This only works against things like cameras.

While burning all com-gear of a lower level than the class of bolo will be shut down within the listed radius. If the GM rules that some piece of gear is particularly unshielded it may even burn it out. It This can allow him to make untraceable calls.

When activated. Standard security systems and electronic gear in the area will be shutdown if the listed roll is made. Com-Gear Cybernetic communications gear is very common. Both security and strength is rated from Mk1 to Mk3. Common citizens will have internal cell-phones. At Level 1. Types of com-gear are: The character can broadcast and receive on several bands. The most important aspects of these communications are their signal strength how easy they are to jam and their security how easy they are to detect or intercept.

Security is used to stop people from listening. Troops will have built in radios. Hackers will come equipped with their own modems and cops will be wired into police channels. Activating a Bolo is a 5 REA medium action—it can be shutdown before its time runs out if the character wishes.

This rating is also used to determine if the piece of com-gear can be jammed by a bolo. A Bolo is primarily used to give an assault team some time before the security teams figure out exactly what is happening. At Level 2 the piece of gear has weak encryption. At Level 3 the gear has strong encryption.

Seminar Report on Cyborg Technology

The greater the difference in the rolls. A standard perception roll will distinguish a person who can only be vaguely seen. Cyber phones are assumed to do conference calls and have all the modern amenities. If the roll is failed the cyborg will detect the lie. It also allows the Polygraph Scanner The character has voice-stress analysis gear. Heat Signature Scan Reptiles can distinguish humans by their heat signature—so can a cyborg fitted with this device. This is a favorite of troops and tightly knit teams.

It was not known what effects it would have, how well it would operate and, importantly, how robust it would be. There was the very real possibility that the transponder might leak or shatter while in the body with catastrophic consequences! The implant in Kevin Warwick's forearm was successfully tested for nine days before being removed. Peter Teddy, Consultant used in a series of experiments and was finally removed to avoid medical complications, after nine Neuro-surgeon, led the operating team which included Mr Amjad Shad.

These wires are to be linked to a novel radio. It is hoped that the project will result in considerable medical benefits for a large number of people, in particular assisting in movement for the spinally injured. The team will now be involved in a wide variety of investigations in the weeks ahead, hopefully also looking into enhancing capabilities when a human and machine are joined - Cyborgs.

Warwick as they were afraid that if operation failed than he can work on with his right arm as he was righty. The team have come together from different branches of Cybernetics. Peter Teddy has a long involvement with neural implants and is the head of Neurosurgery at Oxford.

Although seemingly worlds apart, these fields have many common threads. In one direction, the natural activity of nerves are detected and in the other, nerves can be activated by applied electrical pulses. It is envisaged that such neural connections may, in the future, help people with spinal cord injury or limb amputation.

The microelectronic chip implant, shown in figure 1, comprises an array of fine spikes with sensitive tip electrodes. These spike electrodes are extremely thin, similar in dimension to a human hair. They can safely penetrate nerve tissue and allow the activity of axons close to each tip to be recorded or stimulated i.

In this way the basic safety and function of the devic e can be established before it is explored further in patients. The median nerve contains a mixture of many individual sensory and motor axons. Motor axons that are located within the median nerve conduct signals from the 6 spinal cord to muscles, such as the thenar muscle group located at the base of the thumb as shown in figure 1 c.

The array was inserted into the median nerve such that the sensitive tips of the microelectrodes were distributed within the nerve trunk. Some electrodes can pick up signals from sensory axons whilst others pick up mainly motor axon signals. Others pick up a mix of the two. The array is connected to an external amplifier and signal processing system through fine wires passing through the skin as shown in figure 4. In a series of tests, specific sensory stimuli for example light touch, vibration heat etc.

These signals will be computer analyzed in an attempt to identify the type of receptors being excited. In other tests. When such stimuli are applied to motor axons the corresponding muscle fibres will contract. If however, the electrical stimuli are applied to sensory axons these may be perceived by Professor Warwick as sensations. By carefully applying patterns of precisely controlled low-level electrical stimulation to the sensory axons the investigators will determine if sensations recognizable to Professor Warwick can be generated.

This first stage should allow the team to determine the feasibility of using microelectrode arrays to transmit and receive two- way signals between peripheral nerves and external microcomputers by wires through the skin. In the future, the through-the-skin wire may be replaced by a radio link connecting the fully implanted component with the external control computers as illustrated in figure 5.

For now, the present system allows a relatively low cost and minimally invasive system to be used for research and development. We envisage that such neural prostheses may be used to restore sensory and motor functions lost by spinal injury, other neurological lesions or limb amputation. Two examples are given below to illustrate the sort of applications we have in mind. Similarly, signals are still being put 7 out by the spinal cord and causing muscles to contract.

However, these contractions are reflexive and not voluntarily controlled contractions. Tetraplegics cannot voluntarily move or feel their hands; microelectrode arrays could in principle be inserted into the median and radial nerves.

Muscles that control the hand could be activated using electrical pulses to microelectrodes close to the axons innervating those muscles. Electrical pulses could be generated precisely using a microcomputer as part of some future neuroprosthesis. The receptor signals would be detected by the microelectrodes positioned close to their axons and fed out to the controlling microcomputer which, in turn, would automatically regulate the degree of activation of musc les, so as not to grip the object too tightly or loosely.

It may also be possible to feed back sensory signals picked up by microelectronic arrays in the hand and impose them onto sensory pathways above the level of the lesion using another array. These ar rays may even be inserted into the motor cortex to provide brain signals for the control system, just as Weiner had envisaged.

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Other potential applications in spinal cord injury are envisaged, including, devices to improved bladder and bowel control and perhaps facilitate standing and walking in paraplegics. Amputees still have living nerves in their stumps into which microelectrode arrays could be inserted.

These nerve stumps still relay. For the amputee, miniature force, pressure and temperature sensors can be built into the artificial limb. These sensors could be connected to a control microcomputer which would in turn generate and apply pulses to electrode tips that have been previously associated with the appropriate sensation.

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If a hand amputee, wearing such a prosthesis fitted with miniature pressure sensors in the index finger tip were to touch or pres s on object, the fingertip sensor would generate an electrical signal proportional to the applied pressure. This pressure signal could then be acquired by a microcomputer, which would then apply stimulus pulses to sensory nerve fibers within the stump using a microelectrode array to recreate realistic sensation of pressure at the index fingertip.

Being from the field of Cybernetics it is also possible to speculate that such devices could be used in the future to extend the capabilities of ordinary humans, for example enabling extra sensory input and to provide new methods of communication with machines or other humans.

Although this may sound, to some, rather alarming, futuristic and more the domain of Cyborg science fiction, we emphasize that the short term goals of our work are aimed at developing useful clinical applications within present day ethical constraints It should be emphasized that although an exciting step has been taken it is still very early days.

The examples we have indicated are speculative at this stage and although we are cautiously optimistic, a great deal of work remains to be done to determine if the approach is practical. Furthermore, significant technical development is required to make these devices available to patients.

A channel neural signal amplifier amplifies the signals from each electrode by a factor of and filters signals with corner frequencies of Hz and 7. This means that only 25 of the total channels can be viewed at any one time. When a supra-threshold event occurs, the signal window surrounding the event is time stamped and stored for later, offline analysis. The neural stimulator allows for any of the 25 monitored channels to be electrically stimulated with a chosen repetition frequency at any one time.

We chose glass because it's fairly inert and won't become toxic or block radio signals. There is an outside chance that the glass will break, which could cause serious internal injuries or prove fatal, but our previous experiment showed glass to be pretty rugged, even when it's frequently jolted or struck. In the other end, three mini printed circuit boards will transmit and receive signals.

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The implant will connect to my body through a band that wraps around the nerve fibers - it looks like a little vicar's collar - and is linked by a very thin wire to the glass capsule. For example, when I move a finger, an electronic signal travels from my brain to activate the muscles and tendons that operate my hand. The collar will pick up that signal en route.

Nerve impulses will still reach the finger, but we will tap into them just as though we were liste ning in on a telephone line. The signal from the implant will be analog, so we'll have to convert it to digital in order to store it in the computer. But then we will be able to manipulate it and send it back to my implant.

The results need to be objective in order to be used as a comparative tool. Hand function is in fact considered more important in the clinical assessment of the hand.

Each activity is measured against time and the subject is asked to start and stop the timer to eliminate possible misjudgements from the assessor. A standard assessment procedure is followed to ensure objectivity during the test. The SHAP test has been successfully proved to be a reliable and repeatable test and it is currently used in several hospitals across the UK.

As can be seen below, the tests carried out show no degredation of hand functionality resulting from the implant procedure or experiments carried out during Project Cyborg 2. Information on the holder can be read into a computer system. In a simple example, when a smart card or tag is presented, and the individual is recognized, machinery such as light or a door can operate depending on what the system thinks of that individual's status.

The potential of this technology is enormous. It is quite possible for an implant to replace an Access, Visa or bankers card. There is very little danger in losing an implant or having it stolen! The exac t location of an individual within a building would be known at all times and even whom they were with. This would make it easier to contact them for a message or an urgent meeting.

For example, unless a car recognized the unique signal from its owner, it would remain disabled. At the main entrance, the computer said "Hello" when the Professor entered; detected progress through the building, opening doors on approach and switching on lights. This will allow the implant to record, identify and simulate motor and sensory signals, as well as allowing interface of new senses to the body.

Or it could allow more natural control of prosthetic limbs using remaining nerve fibres, and alternative senses for the blind or deaf. We may be able to artificially affect emotions, perhaps abandoning the concept of feeding people chemical treatments and instead achieve the desired results electronically. Cyberdrugs and cybernarcotics could very well relieve clinical depression, or perhaps even be programmed as a little pick- me-up on a particularly bad day.

Linking people via chip implants to each other and intelligent machines? As scary or liberating as the new technology may be, 'Cyborg' technology is here. It may be only a matter of time before we have to ask ourselves if we are willing to join this new frontier. The operation was carried out at Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, by a medical team headed by the neurosurgeons Amjad Shad and Peter teddy. The procedure, which took a little.

Alternatively, is it a realistic possible future world? The number of respected scientists predicting the advent of intellige nt machines is growing exponentially. Steven Hawking, perhaps the most highly regarded theoretical scientist in the world and the holder of the Cambridge University chair that once belonged to Isaac Newton, said recently, "In contrast with our intellect, computers double their performance every 18 months.

So the danger is real that they could develop intelligence and take over the world. Is the Matrix going to happen whether we like it or not? One flaw in the present-day thinking of some philosophers lies in their assumption that the ultimate goal of research into Artificial Intelligence is to create a robot machine with intellectual capabilities approaching those of a human.

This may. And robots have no trouble thinking of the world around them in multiple dimensions, whereas human brains are still restricted to conceiving the same entity in an extremely limited three dimensional way. One thing overlooked by many is that humans do not reproduce, other than in cloning; rather, humans produce other humans.

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Robots are far superior at producing other robots and can spawn robots that are far more intelligent than themselves. The morals, ethics, and values of these robots will almost surely be drastically different from those of humans.

How would humans be able to reason or bargain with such robots? Why indeed should such robots want to take any notice at all of the silly little noises humans would be making?

It would be rather like humans today obeying the instructions of cows. Naturally, their food source would be an ideal target. For the machines, obtaining energy from the sun—a constant source— would let them bypass humans, excluding them from the loop. Indeed, we must consider this as one possible scenario.

However, actually using humans as a source of energy—batteries, if you like—is a much sweeter solution, and more complete. Humans could be made to lie in individual pod- like wombs, acting rather like a collection of battery cells, to feed the machine- led world with power.

So it is with the Matrix. It is a strange dichotomy of human existence that as a species we are driven by progress—it is central to our being—yet at the same time, for many there is a fruitless desire to step back into a world gone by, a dream world. Simply treating humans as slaves would always bring about problems of resistance. But by providing a port directly into each human brain, each individual can be fed a reality with which he or she is happy, creating for each one a contented existence in a sort of dream world.

Even now we know that scientifically it would be quite possible to measure, in a variety of ways, the level of contentment experienced by each person. The only technical problem is how one would go about feeding a storyline directly into a brain. In one experiment conducted while I was in New York City, signals from my brain, transmitted via the Internet, operated a robot hand in the UK. Meanwhile, signals transmitted onto my nervous system were clearly recognisable in my brain.

A brain port, along the lines of that in the Matrix, is not only a scientific best guess for the future; I am working on such a port now, and it will be with us within a decade at most. I considered myself to be a Cyborg: In The Matrix, the story revolves around the battle between humans and intelligent robots. Yet Neo, and most of the other humans, each have their own brain port. When out of the Matrix, they are undoubtedly human; but while they are in the Matrix, there can be no question that they are no longer human, but rather are Cyborgs.

The real battle then becomes not one of humans versus intelligent robots but of Cyborgs versus intelligent robots. For example, when they are connected are Neo, Morpheus, and Trinity individuals within the Matrix? Or do they have brains which are part human, part machine? Are they themselves effectively a node on the Matrix, sharing common brain elements with others? It must be remembered that ordinarily human brains operate in a stand- alone mode, whereas computer-brained robots are invariably networked.

When connected into a network, as in the Matrix, and as in my own case as a Cyborg, individuality takes on a different form. There is a unique, usually human element, and then a common, networked machine element. He asks how it is possible to know the difference between the dream world and the real world. As a result he faced further problems in defining absolute truths. By making the basic assumption that there is no God, my own conclusion is that there can be no absolute reality, there can be no absolute truth — whether we be human, Cyborg, or robot.

Each individual brain draws its conclusions and makes assumptions as to the reality it faces at an instant, dependant on the input it receives.