Support for TKT candidates and course providers. Frequently Asked Questions. Module 1 answer key. Module 2 answer key. Module 3 answer. TKT Modules 1, 2 & 3 - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Manual Teaching Knodwlege Course. The TKT Course Modules 1, 2 and 3 2nd - Free ebook download as PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. Lesson planning and use of.
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Cambridge Core - Methodology - The TKT Course Modules 1, 2 and 3 - by Mary Spratt. Frontmatter. pp i-iii. Access. PDF; Export citation. Contents. pp iv-v Module 1 - Language and background to language learning and teaching. Access. TKT Modules 1, 2 & 3 - Schoology. Pages·· Teaching Knowledge Test | contents 1 Contents Preface This handbook is intended for course 2. 43 Module 3 answer key 44 Sample OMR answer sheet 45 Band descriptors 1 2 3. 2 Magic: 3-Step Discipline for Calm, Effective, and Happy Parenting.
I don't think we need to teach 'correct' pronunciation these days because people all over the world speak English with different accents. Think about how each point might influence what you do in the classroom 5. Indirect command You ought to hurry up 4. Structural words are prepositions, articles, pronouns or determiners, i. Primary learners do not need to learn functions. Which word contains a diphthong? As this section is about opinions, it does not have an accompanying answer key.
But in fact, except in some situations, who is generally used, with a different word order, e. Teachers need to keep up- to-date with what parts of the language are changing and how. For example, repetition, exclamations and contractions two words that are pronounced or written as one, e. Some grammar books are now available which describe spoken language, too. Learning some grammatical rules and terms makes language learning easier for some learners.
Other learners, e. So, much language teaching nowadays also focuses on functions, language skills, fluency and communication. Learners need to develop accuracy in both form and use. See Units for how we learn grammar, Units for teaching grammatical structures, Units 19, 20 and 21 for planning lessons on grammatical structures, and Unit 32 for ways of correcting grammar.
Follow-up Activities See page for answers 1. Put these words into the correct category below. Some may belong to more than one category. Use prefixes and suffixes to make maps, as in the example, from these words: Complete the table with an example, a term or a description of form. Indirect command You ought to hurry up 4. Read through the text below and identify the uses of the grammatical forms underlined. The most amazing thing happened to me yesterday.
I was leaving the house and I noticed that it was going to rain, so I ran back inside for my umbrella. As soon as I got out of the door, it started to pour down. I tried to open the umbrella but it wouldn't open. Then I felt something land on my head. It was bigger and heavier than a raindrop.
I looked on the ground and I couldn't believe my eyes. There were lots of tiny frogs falling in the rain. Oh no. Are you sure? I've heard of it raining cats and dogs, but never frogs! Reflection Think about these teachers' comments, which do you agree with and why? Children don't learn grammar when they learn their first language but adults who learn a second language really need to.
We need to learn grammar terms to help us learn a language more easily and quickly. Discovery Activities 1. What grammar reference materials are available in your school? Do they describe spoken or written English? Are they up-to-date? How could they help you with your teaching? Compare any two of these books on grammar or the grammar information on the two websites.
Which do you prefer? Are they more useful for you or your learners? Two of the words have the same grammatical function in the sentence. One does NOT. She told us it was very cold there. He studied IT for his job but he made very slow progress so he gave up. They took off their coats and went to the table near the window. She found it really hard to concentrate as it was so noisy there. The young cat ran too fast for the dog to catch it easily. You should arrive early if you want to make a good impression.
Here should is used to A. He stopped driving as he was worried about pollution. Here as is used to A. Here who is used to A. My holiday starts next week and I come back the week after, on the 10th. Here come back is used to A. Here if is used to A.
Hers is living is used to A. Lexis refers to individual words or sets of words, for example: We often speak of the meaning of words. In fact words have different kinds of meaning. Firstly, there is the meaning that describes the thing or idea behind the vocabulary item, e.
This meaning is called 'denotation', and we speak of 'denotative meaning'. Then there is figurative meaning. We speak, for example, of 'the tree of life' or 'a family tree'. This imaginative meaning comes from, but is different from, a word's denotative meaning. There is also the meaning that a vocabulary item has in the context situation in which it is used, e.
The meaning of some vocabulary items can also come from their form, e. Adding prefixes or suffixes to base words the basic words or parts of a word from which other words can be made can, for example, give them an opposite meaning e. It may also change their part of speech e. The process of adding affixes is called affixation.
Compound nouns get their meaning from being together e. They have a different meaning from the individual words they are made up of. There are also words that regularly occur together, such as collocations, fixed expressions and idioms. Collocations are words that often occur together e. There are many words which collocate in a language, and the degree of collocation can vary.
For example, watch out is a very strong collocation as these words very often occur together, whereas watch a video is less strong and watch the postmen is not a collocation. The words in watch the postmen can occur together but don't do so often enough to make them a collocation. Unit 2. Lexis Fixed expressions are expressions which can't be changed e.
Idioms are a kind of fixed expression as they can't be changed, but their meaning is usually different from the combination of the meaning of the individual words they contain e. Collocations, fixed expressions and idioms are all different kinds of chunks.
Have a good, trip, I'd like to Words also have different relationships with one another. They may, for example, be synonyms words with the same or similar meanings or antonyms words with opposite meanings. They may be part of the same lexical set groups of words that belong to the same topic area, e.
They may also belong to the same word family words that come through affixation from the same base word, e. False friends, homophones, homonyms and varieties of English are other ways in which words can relate to one another. False friends are very important in language teaching and learning. They are words which have the same or a similar form in two languages but a different meaning.
Embarazado, for example, means pregnant in Spanish. It does not mean embarrassed, though it looks as if it does to an English speaker! Homophones and homonyms are important, too, in language learning. Homophones are words with the same pronunciation but a different meaning or spelling e. Homonyms are words with the same spelling and pronunciation as another word, but a different meaning, e. Words can also relate to one another through being examples of different varieties of English, i.
Indian, Australian, us, South African, British. These varieties sometimes affect lexis as the same things can be called by different names in different varieties, e. The table below shows examples of some of the form and meaning relationships of two words.
Lexical features clear adjective paper noun Denotations 1. It seemed a good idea on paper Idioms to clear the decks to start afresh to put pen to paper We can see from this table that words sometimes have several denotations. The Words can also change their denotations according to what part of speech they are, e.
We can also see from the table that not all words have all the kinds of form or meaning relationships. This cannot take place the first time a learner meets a new word. It takes learners a long time to fully understand and use a word. At first they will probably just learn its most frequent denotative meaning, its spelling and pronunciation.
In this way their memory of them will be consolidated and they will get to know more about the word, e.
They can meet words again in texts, or in vocabulary extension activities i. The words we recognise are called our 'receptive' vocabulary; the words we can use are called our 'productive' vocabulary. A teacher usually teaches learners key important words and exposes them to many more. The learners pick these words up, initially only recognising their meaning, then eventually using them productively.
Then we can point this out to the learners and help to save them from misunderstandings. For example, we may teach clothes before teaching jeans, shirt, T-shirt, etc. Experts think that children learning their first language learn the chunks as a whole rather than in parts. This helps them to remember them better and recall remember them more quickly.
As teachers we can highlight draw learners' attention to chunks of language for learners. Students can return to add information about individual words as they learn more about them. What does each of these sets of words have in common? Are they synonyms, antonyms, lexical sets, compounds, idioms, collocations, word families, homophones, words with prefixes or words with suffixes? Which do you agree with and why? There are some advantages in using translation to teach meaning, but some disadvantages, too.
I think it's really important-for my learners to keep a vocabulary notebook in which they write the word, its meaning s , its pronunciation, its collocations, etc. Getting to know words is like getting to know a friend - you learn more about them bit by bit. Look up three words from your coursebook in an English-English dictionary. What kinds of information are given for each word? Decide which information is important for your students 2.
It tells you more about the meaning of words and gives lots of ideas for teaching vocabulary. TKT practice task 2 See page for answers For questions , read the text about the city of York. Match the underlined words and phrases with the lexical terms listed A-G.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use. Lexical terms A. Famous for its beautiful 2 architecture, streets and cathedral.
York is fast developing an active, lively cultural life. A city of contrasts and exciting discoveries, York is a place where the old and the new have 5 met, and the ordinary meets with the 6 unusual. Phonology is the study of the sound features used in a language to communicate meaning.
In English these features include phonemes, word stress, sentence stress and intonation. All these symbols represent phonemes.
A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound that can make a difference to meaning in a language. Different languages use a different range of sounds and not all of them have meaning in other languages. Phonemic symbols help the reader know exactly what the correct pronunciation is. The phonemic script is a set of phonemic symbols which show in writing how words or sounds are pronounced, e.
The phonemes of English are often shown in a chart, called the phonemic chart. The chart groups the sounds into vowels sounds made with the mouth partly open and where the air is not stopped by the tongue, lips or teeth, e. Id in the top left- hand corner, diphthongs a movement from one vowel sound to another within a single syllable, e. The consonants are arranged in an order according to how Unit 3.
Phonology Dictionaries always give phonemic transcriptions of words to show their pronunciation.
They usually have a list of all the phonemic symbols at the beginning or end of the book, together with an example of the sound each symbol represents. There are several phonemic scripts with some small differences in the symbols they use.
The symbol is used to show word stress. Sometimes you see word stress marked in other ways, e. When we give word stress to a syllable we say it with greater energy and usually higher, i. Compare the stress in the vowel sounds in the underlined stressed syllables with the other syllables in these words: We pronounce the other syllables with less energy, especially the unstressed or weak syllables, whose vowels get shortened or sometimes even disappear, e.
There are many languages which, like English, give especially strong stress to one syllable in a word, e.
Other languages give equal length to all the syllables. In English, stress also influences how sentences and groups of words are pronounced. We say different parts of the sentence with more or less stress, i. This is called sentence stress. Normally one word in the sentence has primary or main stress. This is the word which the speaker thinks is most important to the meaning of the sentence.
Other words can have secondary stress. This is not so strong as main stress and falls on words which are not so important to the meaning of the sentence as the word with main stress. Other words in the sentence are unstressed.
For example, in 'She came home late last night' or 'I can't understand a word he says', the words with the main stress would probably be the underlined ones, the words with secondary stress would probably be came, home, last, night and can't, understand, says, and the unstressed words she, I, a and he.
Main and secondary stress usually occur on content words which carry meaning rather than structural words. Content Words are nouns, verbs, adverbs or adjectives, i.
Structural words are prepositions, articles, pronouns or determiners, i. For example, in the sentence 'The The others are grammatical words. You can see that normally these would not be stressed.
Of course, there are exceptions to this. It is possible to stress any word in a sentence if the speaker thinks it is important. Putting the stress on an unexpected word in a sentence is called contrastive stress. For example, The girl ran to the sea and jumped in quickly.
Look at these examples: The girl ran to the sea and jumped in quickly, i.
Some other characteristics of connected speech are contractions, e. These characteristics help to keep the rhythm pattern of stress of speech regular.
The regular beat falls on the main stress, while the weaker syllables and words are made shorter to keep to the rhythm. Try saying the sentences above and beating out a regular rhythm on your hand as you say them. Another feature of connected speech which helps to keep it smooth is linking. In connected speech we join i.
This happens particularly when one word ends in a consonant sound and the next one starts with a vowel sound, e. Linking is often represented in a phonemic transcription as w.
Intonation is another important feature of connected speech. It is the way a speaker changes the level of their voice to show meaning, i.
Through it we can show emotions and attitudes, emphasise i.
You should hear the level of your voice rising and falling in different patterns. For example, when you say the sentence as a statement of fact, your intonation has a falling tone as follows: Different intonation patterns can show many different meanings, but there is no short and simple way of describing how the patterns relate to meanings.
If you want to learn more about intonation, look at the book suggested in the Discovery activities on page This means learners need to understand a wide variety of accents in English arid be understood by people from many different places.
Listening to recordings of speakers from a range of countries helps them with this. They can also, of course, try to listen to TV, radio programmes, and some websites in English.
This can be done as we teach new language by asking learners to repeat models of the new language. We can also encourage dear pronunciation by correcting or asking learners to correct their pronunciation mistakes. We can use activities, too, which focus just on e. This can help direct learners' attention to particular sounds when they learn new language or for correction.
Learners may not need to learn all the symbols on the chart but just the sounds that are problematic for them. This can help them remember them better. Some learners, e. Older learners may appreciate them, particularly as they help them to make good use of dictionaries. See Units 21 and 23 for how to incorporate the teaching of pronunciation into lesson plans and the resources that can be used to do this. Look at the phonemic symbols in the chart on page Practise saying each symbol.
Test yourself or a colleague to see how well you know the symbols. Look at the phonemic chart. Try to think of words which contain each sound. How many phonemes are there in each of these words? What are they? Underline the main stress in each of these words: On which word would you put the main stress in each of these sentences?
I live in Manchester, not London. Brasilia is in the middle of Brazil, not on the sea. The girl was very tall, but her brother was really short. Say 'Fantastic' with different intonations to express these meanings: I don't think we need to teach 'correct' pronunciation these days because people all over the world speak English with different accents.
You can't improve the pronunciation of adults - there's no point in trying. Knowing about phonology can help teachers when they plan and give their lessons. Look at the phonemic chart on page 21 and underline.
Check their pronunciation learners find difficult to say 2. Choose five words you will soon teach your learners. Check their pronunciation in a dictionary. Decide which sounds might be problematic for your learners.
Ship or Sheep? ELT terms and concepts are clearly introduced and explained using non-specialist language. TKT practice tests help candidates become familiar with the format, level and style of the exam. Regular concept checking tasks and full answer keys make it perfect for self-study. View all. Twitter Facebook Youtube Instagram. Cookies Policy In order to improve our web services, we place third party and our own cookies on your computer.
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