ABOUT THE AUTHOR. Page 2 OSHO INTERNATIONAL MEDITATION RESORT. Page 2 MORE OSHO BOOKS. Page FOR MORE INFORMATION. the OSHO International Meditation. Resort and commented how much more strongly I feel the place today than before. I am increasingly aware. Osho has given a new vision of philosophy, which has been there from ages. In , he introduced his revolutionary meditation technique,. Dynamic.
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Dynamic Meditation: Catharsis and Celebration lnstructions for Dynamic Meditation *. Giving birth to yourself. Remember, rcmain a witness. Tlvo Powerful . -Osho -Come Follow To You Vol.3, Chapter # 8. Meditation means pure awareness, a mirror like quality of consciousness. Being utterly present in the here and. “Concentration and meditation are polar opposites. Concentration narrows down your mind; it is focusing on one point. It includes only something and excludes.
The Alpha and the Omega Poona: The basic premise—as in all cathartic workshops—is that the modern subject is forged through internalized authoritarian utterances, primarily carried out by parents with the end result perceived as being repressive and traumatic. To close, I would like to suggest that the phenomenon of Osho-Rajneesh sheds It is unlikely that either the Occidental or the Easterner has the stamina some important light on a number of critical issues for the study of religions in to survive the exchange of views, yet both insist on trying, and both use the context of transnationalism and globalization at the turn of the millennium. It is like the Dawn instead, there is now only one world-that of international capitalism: Feuerstein, l-loly Madness, Carter, Charisma and Control, , Tantra will become bad.
The materiaJiy poor can never become spirituaJ. Capitalism has grown out of freedom. It is a natural phenome- same time paradoxically reasserts a new kind of hierarchical power.
Thus, the non. Rather than denying the physical senses or The structure of the early Rajneesh movement appears to have been par- even material greed, Tantra seeks the active wedding of worldly enjoyment and ticularly well suited to the complex and volatile economic situation of the last spirituaJ liberation: First, decades of the twentieth century.
Precisely because Rajneesh explicitly before you start serving anybody else, be absolutely selfish. How can you serve rejected all dogmatic authority and presented such a radically flexible, fluid anyone else unless you have attained your inner being? Be absolutely sclfish! Having effectively deconstructed all other criticized for his own rather rich tastes-above all, for his collection of Rolls institutional authority, this made possible a radicaJly fluid, flexible, and adapt- Royccs, in which he was frequently seen riding comfortably past masses of able business structure, one based not on centraJized direction or fixed rules adoring devotees.
Yet Rajnccsh seemed quite unapologetic about his taste for but rather on economic opportunism and organizational diversity. The only the finer things of life and saw no contradiction, for the truly liberated and law, it seems, was what worked; the only constant is what makes money. As he later nyasins were encouraged to experiment with any business or organizationaJ explained his penchant for expensive automobiles, "People arc sad, jealous and form which offers convenience," Carter observed.
I don't sec that there is tification for their enterprises save that they be profitable. In fact, sitting in a bullock cart it is very difficult to be With the help of some sophisticated legaJ and business management, the meditative; a Rolls Royce is the best for spirituaJ growth. The RNSIC, or "commune" on the other hand, was established as an independent corporation to provide subsistence for members who donated their labor to the construction of the ranch.
I am not teaching a philosophy here. For example, when Rajneesh's appetite for Rolls Royccs rational I am not a philosopher.
I am not here giving you a began to exceed the ordinary needs that a religious leader might be expected consistent dogma to which you can cling.
My whole effort is to to have, the solution was to create an entity separate from the church called the give you a no-mind. And so it went-"not accord- -Osho ing to a grand scheme, but in an adaptive, expedient, ad hoc fashion. As his homeland, in large part because of his status as an international figure that former disciple Hugh Milne recounts, "Money making, collecting domtions had a massive U. His followers were not only able Bhagwan said that in the to rationalize the disastrous scandal in the United States, but even to make new commune we would grow money on trees Bhagwan was quite open Rajneesh a heroic martyr who had been unjustly persecuted by the oppressive about the fact that the primary object was to make money.
Twenty Hindu title of"Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh," an appellation that had asserted his major corporations were created worldwide, with twenty-eight hank accounts, divine, god-man status. The joke is over," he declared. As Carter suggests, this global network had Instead, he adopted the more universal title of"Osho"-a title that, according charismatic organizational structure; rather than a fixed corporate organization to some, derives from the Japanese term for master, and according to others, with permanent structures, the Rajneesh corporation adapted quickly to the from the "oceanic experience" described by William James.
His message, too, changing needs of different contexts. The individual businesses within the became increasingly universal, more palatable and marketed to a global con- R. India is too old, ancient, traditional. In fact, I am not an Indian I belong to no nation. My message is uni- next, depending on the shifting needs of the market: Even his seemingly exces- carded In sum, Rajneeshism as a business enterprise was ba.
Osho has something more appro- doxical yet remarkably effective principles as his spiritual teachings. Like his priate for a species crippled by greed, fear, ignorance and superstition: What Osho is out to do, it seems to me, is pierce our disguises, confusion of modern life, a unique sacred space where one can discover one's shatter our illusions As Elle magazine put it, "Every year thousands of people visit this played the more objectionable aspects of his earlier message, transforming his luxurious resort The atmosphere is really like a fairy tale.
A paradise where radical brand of Nco-Tantrism into a kind of universal global religion of Love. This is the idiotic Indian yellow journalism that has confined my whole enterprise. What they have been doing all along is misin- forming pcople. Indeed, he days of the politicians are over. We are moving in a tremendously seems to have published more books and received more acclaim a.
The can only be one world now, only one single humanity. And then Punc center, meanwhile, has grown into a successful and now globalized spiri- there will be a tremendous release of energies. As such, he is a powerful illustration of what E spiritual techniques drawn from a smorga.
Astrology Train- Ma.
With an explicitly universal religious vision, the new Osho economic situation at the close of the twentieth century-na. As we read in a recent advertisement ism" Offe.
S3 Yet whatever its na. Since at least the early s, there has world The resort meditation programs arc ba. Most programs take place in postmodernity, funds can be transferred a. As Fredric Jameson summarizes it, the" cul- vessel of sin or an unruly vessel of desires that must be disciplined and mas- tural logic of late capitalism" is characterized by a general loss of faith in any tered-rather, the body is proclaimed as ultimate source of gratification, enjoy- grand, totalizing, or unifYing view of the world or human history a death of ment, and fulfillment.
A spiritual Proteus and an incredibly eclectic cannibalize other books. Rejecting all the great metanarratives of immediate gratification, and ecstatic experience. As Terry Eagleton observes, mainstream religion, society, and politics, he conceived his own kind of"post- "Its stance toward cultural tradition is one of irreverent pastiche and its con- modern bricolage," drawing freely on all the sacred traditions of the world, trived depthlessness undermines all metaphysical solemnities In ing in an equally flexible web of both secular and religious centers throughout the "market-like conditions of modern life," as Jiirgen Haberma.
He was, moreover, quite unashamed of the fact that his message had thing tends to become a commodity that may be bought and sold, from art to both a spiritual and material aim, and he saw no contradiction between the politics to religion itself. On the contrary, it was pre- place alongside other secular businesses and industries, religion itself tends to cisely his aim to unite the desire for transcendence and desire for economic become yet another consumer product within the supermarket of values.
The capital in his ideal of the new Superman, Zorba the Buddha. And finally, religious believer, meanwhile, is free to choose from a wide array of possible Osho-Rajneesh is also a powerful example of the preoccupation with the belief. In this repressive Max Weber's metaphor Individuals jarej able to select from a plurality "Buddha's inner orgasm. Yet as Foucault points out, it is not so much the case that modern society As Bryan S.
Turner, Mike Featherstone, not resting until we have shattered every law, violated every taboo: Rather, the real threat today is the spread of consumer capitalism and the domination of the global marketplace over all local economies, polities, and When East meets West all you get is the neo-Sannyasi, the instant cultural forms-a process that is no longer dominated by the West, no longer Nirvana You have the karma, we'll take the Coca Cola, meta- a matter of either "occidentalization" or "orientalization," but a far more physical soft drink for a physical one.
To many observers, we seem to -Gita Mehta, Karma Cold be living more and more in "one McWorld tied together by communications, information, entertainment and commerce," that remains "caught between l thought when I first visited the Orient that l would find myself Babel and Disneyland. As Gita Mehta suggests, India has now ever be fully transformed by the West. Madonna and Rambo might been subjected to the complete penetration of American mass marketing, and rule the streets, and hearts might be occupied with dreams of now any encounter between East and West will only result in the worst of Cadillacs While India seeks the materialism and technological power of the turned by passing trade winds from the West.
Both end up with empty distorted phantasms reflecting their own repressed desires: To close, I would like to suggest that the phenomenon of Osho-Rajneesh sheds It is unlikely that either the Occidental or the Easterner has the stamina some important light on a number of critical issues for the study of religions in to survive the exchange of views, yet both insist on trying, and both use the context of transnationalism and globalization at the turn of the millennium.
The Occidental Are they the East the transcendence of economics and technology The West- doomed, in a sense, to become Coca-colonized and McDonaldized into yet erner is finding the dialectic of history less fascinating than the endless another franchise in the global marketplace of cultures? What we have witnessed in the modern superficial cross-cultural exchange: The result is the neo-Tantric or "neo- era, Halbfass believes, is the progressive "Europeanization of the world"-that sannyasin" who seeks instant nirvana enlightenment and soda-pop enlighten- is, the domination of the globe by Western culture, ideology, and discourse, to ment.
They meet in a Westernized bility of local resistance and indigenous critique. As Marshall Sahlins argues, world, under conditions shaped by Western ways of thinking. Yet precisely because they However, it seems to me that the real danger today is no longer the cannot be resisted, the goods of the larger system take on meaningful places in threat of thee'' Europeanization" of the world; indeed, it is no longer even the the local scheme of things.
Foucault, History of Sexuality, Volume I: An Introduction New York: Vintage, process of "the spread of America's pop-cultural imperialism throughout the , Fredric Jameson, Postmodernism: Or, the Cultural Logic C! Duke University Press, My own view here is somewhat more complex and ambivalent-at once 4. For Rajneesh's biography, see Urban, "Zorba the Buddha: Capitalism, more optimistic than Halbfass's narrative of inevitable Europeanization of the Charisma, and the Cult ofBhagwan Shree Rajneesh," Religion 26 Studies in a New Religious Mo11ement Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas, More popular accounts by disciples and ex- nous resistance against the onslaught of global capitalism.
With Sahlins, I would disciples include: Yati, The Sound C! A Photobiography of Bhagwan Shree like to highlight, even celebrate, the power of non-Western cultures to appro- Rajneesh Poona: RJ,jneesh Foundation, ; Milne, Bhagwan: Yet it seems to me that York: Viking, Georg Feuerstein, Holy Madness: Paragon House, , The Role C!
Cambridge University Press, , For a good dis- much Japanese and Indian as American-to all points of the globe and all cussion of Sheela's increasing control over the movement and her various criminal aspects of human interaction. For Osha's own to the market, a deformation of capitalism, and yet still largely ruled by the retrospective views on Sheela, see Autobiography, Martin's, capitalism.
And if "resistance" means nothing more than adding an Indian , See Hugh Milne, Bhagwan: The God that Failed New York: Martin's, , fairly pathetic form of resistance. But perhaps the value of reflecting upon a radically deconstructive, ironic, Carter, Charisma and Control, , Bob Mullan, Lifo as Laughter: Following Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh Boston: Rout- deconstruct some of our own most basic assumptions. If Osho were alive ledge, , Rajneesh, The Art C! I am to critique the basic values of late capitalist consumer culture itself.
After all, as here to make you completely weightless-without religion, without ideology There Osho explained his own mission, his goal all along has been to try to shock us is no need of any religion, there is no need of any God, there is no need of any priest- out of our comfortable slumbers and" self-contented illusions. This is possibly hood I trust in the individual categorically.
Carter, Charisma and Control, Vasant Joshi, Awakened One: The Lifo and! Mlrk of Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh San dictions that run through our own increasingly plural, fragmented, and yet Francisco: Harper and Row, , Feuerstein, Holy Madness, Rajneesh, Tantra the Supreme Understanding Poona: A Sannyasin informant, cited in Carter, Charisma and Control, As Osho puts 1.
And what is wrong Modernity Oxford: Blackwell, On Scientology and its unique fit with capitalism, with being brainwashed? Wash it every day, keep it clean A Sociological Analysis of Scientology London: I am in absolute favor of it It is just an up to date religious laundry.
Osho, Autobiography, One of the most popular early techniques was "Dynamic" or "Chaotic Medi- Ranjeesh, Tantra the Supreme Understanding, If it is God who has habitual patterns of thought and behavior" and so open the individual to ecstatic free- created your body, your sexuality, your sensuality, then it cannot be against God. After an initial stage of concentration and yogic breathing, the chaotic meditation Tlze Tantric Transformation, Rajncesh, Harper and Row, , 72ff. For a general discussion ofTantra, David Gordon White, ed.
Milne, Bhagwan: Tlze God that Failed, Princeton University Press, Gordon, Tlze Golden Guru, Element, , 4. On the trans- Tize God that Failed, Urban, "The Cult of Ecstasy: Religions 39 A Thematic Overview," in Osho, The 1imtric 'Iransformation, Palmer and Sharma, The Rajneesh Papers, Rajneesh, Tantra the Supreme Understanding, 93, Osho, Never Born, Never Died.
Available from World Wide Web: Rajneesh, Yoga: The Alpha and the Omega Poona: Rajneesh Foundation, , , As Susan J. Palmer comments, "Rajneesh's philosophy and commune life vali- Tom Robbins, quoted on the "Osho.
Rajncesh offers a highly elaborated theology of sexual love. Rajneesh, 1imtra the Supreme Understanding, Feuerstein, l-loly Madness, Miiller, Biographical Essays New York: Scribner's Sons, , On the concept of! Or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism; cations of Bhagwan's presence 'flowing' between his disciples. Offe, Disorganized Capitalism Oxford: Oxford University Press, ; David Harvey, Rajncesh, 'fimtra the Suprente Understanding, Tlze Condition of Postmodernity London: Rajnecsh, 'f1te Goose is Out Poona: Overall, there were always a few dozen thera- pists, instructors, and assistants at the resort.
The therapist in charge of the work- shop briefly interviewed me. She was American, in her late 40s, from a Jewish background. In a mutual interview, therapists screened those who were inter- ested in a workshop. They eventually denied access to someone deemed immature to be later examined. Have you ever done workshops like this before?
The group of about 20 people gathered at the plaza, and I was introduced to the man who requested trans- lation. The room was air conditioned and comfortable, with bright windows for viewing rich jungle gardens.
There was no furniture other than a professional sound system, and the floor was covered with thickly cushioned mattresses and pillows, with piles of sheets around. They mentioned a will to discover more about them- selves and to become better people.
Many participants wanted to get rid of traits that they disliked, such as a lack of self-esteem, shyness, or anxiety. These exercises were practiced individually, in couples, and in groups. Close physical contact full-bodied hugs, caressing, massage was common, regardless of gender. The thera- pist reminded participants that they ought to become aware of emotional nodes and conditionings, particularly those that origi- nated in childhood. The basic premise—as in all cathartic workshops—is that the modern subject is forged through internalized authoritarian utterances, primarily carried out by parents with the end result perceived as being repressive and traumatic.
Even though emo- tional confrontation was common, physical violence was never employed in any of the workshops I attended or asked about. After each exercise, individual experiences were shared before the group sitting on mattresses.
In this confessional moment, participants claimed to have become more aware about emotional nodes that constrain their personality and to also feel more empowered for being able to exteriorize these nodes. The impor- tance of confession cannot be underestimated: Drawing from a developmental perspective, the therapist led the group to regress emotionally, prior to taking it to affirm posi- tive traits of personality. This regressive-progressive process required a protective envi- ronment where participants could feel safe.
Thus, despite the con- tinuous encouragement for expressing negative emotions that include aggression, there never was physical or emotional abuse, and the therapist tried to make sure that participants respect- fully listened to each other. The therapist skillfully led the person to under- mine his or her own position, gradually unveiling emotional flaws underlying spurious rationalizations, until the person admitted his or her own inner frailties.
Rather than intellectual debate, sharing was the predominant genre. One incident illustrates the sentimental, controlled, yet ethno- centric nature of sannyasin therapies. Participants were required to mimic childhood situations in which their parents abused them emotionally or were interpreted as such. The group then plunged into simultaneously screaming in multiple languages. Each participant gestured aggressively as if reprimanding an invisible child. We are now sharing experiences.
Anyone else? That was not a space for rational debate but rather for emotional empathy. For research purposes, however, I had inadvertently hit into a vexing issue at the OIMR, referring to the limits of Western ideologies of subjectivity formation in addressing individuals of other cultural backgrounds, particularly Indians a topic to be resumed in this article.
Some remarks about the efficacy of expressive therapies are pertinent. Most participants reported some form of psychological gain at the end of the workshops I attended and asked about: Yet in private, other participants seemed more skeptical. They claimed that workshops were generally positive but that some individuals exaggerated in their performance, expectations, and perceived benefits.
Moreover, psychological benefits were derived from the often-ignored social function of workshops, which cre- ated opportunities for interpersonal interaction. Those who did not attend workshops tended to remain isolated in the vastness of the resort. Finally, although many participants did not follow Osho, everyone agreed that therapy was accessory to meditation, the ultimate practice for spiritual development. Sannyasins were pounded with the idea that they ought to express their emo- tions and opinions as a proof of their inner authenticity.
As previously seen, within therapeutic settings, expression was monitored and shaped by the therapist according to his or her design.
In other words, a basic contradiction between the ideological pressure for self-expression and the institutional control of cen- trifugal behavior permeated daily life in the OIMR. This contrac- tion is examined in the following subsections. As a methodological remark, I deliberately chose dramatic examples that more explic- itly evince such contradiction between expression and control.
These incidents usually involve foreign visitors interacting in liminal spaces e. Without the protection of homeland symbolism which holds the self together , the subject becomes exposed to uncon- scious pressures that alter cognitive, affective, and behavioral processes.
More than a therapy procedure, being expressive was highly valued and pervasively expected.
And in parallel, formal politeness and other social conventions were suspiciously seen as symptoms of a repressed personality.
Their interactions therefore tended to be extremely can- did, either affectionate or aggressive, and minor confrontations over minor issues abounded. As another consequence of this ideological pressure being exerted in a remote country, most visitors reported some form of emotional hardship during their stay in Pune.
This was particularly noticeable during midweek afternoons, when cathartic workshops that started on Monday peaked around Wednesday. Observing the number of distressed faces wandering through the resort, a Western informant who regularly attended these workshops noted: You see all these people in the ashram. They look unhappy and miserable. And all these fights. They behave like assholes here because they cannot be like that at home.
So this is a relatively safe environment to behave like that, without suf- fering serious consequences.
In this sense, to be peaceful at home, one ought to be aggressive in Pune. Because of this intense emotional work, visitors devel- oped unusual forms of behavior, reasoning, and sociability. This could be inferred from answers given to trivial statements. I invited someone for a coffee and heard: Some individuals reported paranormal experiences or implied to have achieved some form of spiritual enlightenment. This very unlikely claim was informally made during a break of a cathartic workshop. The gate- men took him to a psychiatrist downtown and left him there, alone.
During the appointment, he recovered his ordinary facul- ties, as if returning from a trance state. The young man refused to pay and angrily returned to the resort, but he was not allowed in. His meditation pass had been taken away. Next morning, he met with two supervisors, an Indian and a German man.
You have to follow the rules here. More generally, consular psychiatrists have suggested that long-term travel through mythic lands India, Israel, Greece, Paris may trigger mild or acute episodes of psychosis that efface as soon as the subject returns home Airault, ; Hacking, In sum, eccentric behavior and abrasive interactions between visitors and resort leaders were not rare.
Despite its remarketing as a trendy meditation resort, the organization still employed control mechanisms typically verified in total institutions Carter, ; Gordon, In other words, the OIMR paradoxically pro- moted and controlled idiosyncrasy. It incited individuals to express their inner selves, sometimes resulting in the temporary derailment of structured personalities psychic deterritorializa- tion.
However, when these episodes spun out of the therapeutic setting, the organization imposed harsh discipline. Although forms of transmission and pro- tection have been identified, testing has remained since then, and it is a condition for entering the resort or any other Osho center around the world.
More recently, however, some sannyasins have suggested its discontinuation, but therapists remarked that visitors feel more at ease in therapeutic settings in which physical contact with strangers is common. Therefore, for the time being, the Inner Circle decided to maintain the testing procedure.
It symbolically reinforced a space of liminality in which sannyasins felt detached from the mundane world outside. Yet HIV testing also fed rumors about sexual promiscuity and orgies among san- nyasins. It is true that many visitors welcomed the possibility of casual sexual encounters; nonetheless, in relation to its counter- cultural past, the community was considerably more conservative in terms of sexual activity.
As a result, rumors and misrepresen- tations created embarrassing situations, the analysis of some of which exposes the nature and limit of countercultural practices of self-formation.
Indians composed the largest national group of sannyasins at the OIMR during the s. However, they were largely absent from therapy workshops. It was commonplace in the resort that Indians were socialized in a culture with very different condi- tionings.
Sannyasin therapists claimed that cathartic workshops did not work well with Indians and could even traumatize them. Osho himself reinforced the ori- entalist stereotype: Nonetheless, rather than accepting these statements at face value, it is necessary to examine the political and ideological foun- dations that sustain such therapeutic apartheid.
Sannyasin therapists worried when Indians, mostly males, applied to participate in workshops. At screening interviews, they required Indians to attend, first, other basic workshops that emphasize spiritual and mental aspects over physical ones.
They eventually excluded some applicants regardless of nationality, but Indian males were apparently the only group profiled in terms of nationality and gender. Another factor underlying the therapeutic apartheid stemmed from recurrent complaints by women that Indian men persistently stalked them. Many Indian men understood Western women, par- ticularly sannyasin ones, as being more sexually available than their Indian counterparts. Therapists thus inspected their motiva- tions for wanting to join workshops involving issues of body, sen- suality, and sexuality, such as Tantra and Reichian therapies.
It was not that Western men were not interested in sex, but the dif- ference lied in which courtship strategies were deemed appropriate and which were not. To wit, some Indian men were fully integrated into the multinational populace of the resort. Yet they had to adapt to Western tastes and dispositions, reframing these in hybrid ways.
Under these postcolonial conditions, their Indianness became an attractive asset. Indian women rarely participated in therapy workshops but were more easily admitted once the therapist verified that they understand standard procedures, such as touching, sensual movements, confrontation, sharing, and so on.
For younger ones, the OIMR provided a space where they could break away from rigorous gender and familial expectations Basnet, ; Goldman, ; Palmer, By isolating gender as a variable of analysis, it becomes clear that the issue at stake is not sex but rather subjectivity: As mentioned, sannyasins claimed that Indians also suffer repression; however, they also believed that sannyasin therapies are ineffective to Indian nationals.
It could be speculated that, as India modern- izes, cathartic therapies may become more functional for its stressed city dwellers. However, the answer is not that simple. Unlike Westerners in general, Indians rarely lash out against their parents or social institutions. Thus, for the time being, rather than a human labora- tory as suggested at the start-up session , Indians experienced the resort as a playful garden.
Through a process of modern gentrification, a new demographic profile has been noticed: A smaller number of wealthier, mainstream visitors have replaced former countercultural sannyasins. In the post- Osho scenario, the resort has adapted to legal and cultural struc- tures of Pune, India, and the West to secure its survival.
Any practice that could be seen as socially transgressive was banned e. More widely, despite modern transportation and communication lines, neoliberal capitalism has imposed new difficulties—notably, the decline of labor, wages, and welfare protection—thus preventing Western sannyasins from staying in India for extended periods. In the meantime, the rise of a new Indian middle class sustains a growing proportion of nationals at the OIMR. As a result, the decline of the therapeutic apartheid is likely to be noticed in years to come.
This article has examined some of the practices and disposi- tions by which sannyasins seek to transform the modern self. In therapy workshops and daily interactions, they manifest a critical concern with affection and sociability. These are the basic issues that trouble their personalities and that Osho was contin- ually asked to address in interviews and speeches. In their view, social order obstructs personal development by means of repres- sion.
By combining therapy and meditation, sannyasins claim that it is possible to neutralize these power-knowledge forms that constrain the self, reconfigur- ing it, at least to a certain extent. The overemphasis on topics of repression, expression, and confession conceals the fact that power not only represses the modern subject but also produces certain experiences and understand- ings about the self Foucault, In the sannyasin context, these psycho- logical tools are informed by a countercultural philosophy that criticizes modern life and seeks to engender a more holistic, expressive, and reflexive self.
The Western self is a product of a sin- gular configuration of religious, social, and scientific institutions and ideologies that have historically crystallized into an arrange- ment of notions that is constitutive of the Western self: In other words, as different selves are con- stituted within different civilizational regimes, the efficacy of a therapy healing system or self-technique depends on its ability to address deeper categories of subjectivity formation that are characteristic of a given society.
In other words, after repression is lifted, the subject is confronted with the ethical question of what to do with freedom Foucault, With the decline of morality in high modern civilization, one response has been the development of an aesthetics of the self, by which the subject seeks to balance divergent life values of religion, economy, justice, science, war, eroticism, etc.
The New Age coalescence of magic, religion, science, art, and leisure is indicative of new forms of subjectivity and sociality that have the potential to be more dynamic, balanced, or holistic. NOTES 1. This estimate is based on the number of new registrations processed daily at the Welcome Center: This estimate does not include tourists who see the resort in 2-hour tours.
Osho later proposed Zorba the Greek a necessary complement to Buddha. In any case, Zorba indexes the same host of attrib- utes found in Zarathustra. In its communal legacy, distribution of authority was often unclear, and decisions did not correspond to formal lines of delegation and responsibility.
As it seems, some communards exerted more power than what would normally be necessary for organi- zational ends. Directors were apparently closed to any suggestions about the resort, an attitude that staff at the ground level tended to reproduce in their interactions with visitors and among themselves. Amitabh, S. Shree Rajneesh Ashram: A provocative community. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 22 1 , Amrito, S. Rajneesh therapy. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 24 1 , Aveling, H. Osho Rajneesh and his disciples: Some Western perceptions.
Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass. Basnet, C. The way of neo-Sannyas: Sociological perspective on a new religious movement in Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal: Udaya Books. Bird, F. Therapeutic aspects of new religious move- ments. Sharma Eds. Studies in a new religious movement pp. Braidotti, R. Nomadic subjects: Embodiment and sexual differ- ence in contemporary feminist theory. New York: Columbia University Press. Carter, L.
Charisma and control in Rajneeshpuram: The role of shared values in the creation of community. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Changing times for a changing city.
Times of India. Online news article. Global nomads: Techno and New Age as transna- tional countercultures in Ibiza and Goa. Saint-John Ed. The spiritual economy of nightclubs and raves: Osho sannyasins as party promoters in Ibiza and Pune-Goa. Culture and Religion, 7 1 , Deleuze, G.
A thousand plateaus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. University of Minnesota.
Dumont, L. Homo hierarchicus: The caste system and its implications. University of Chicago Press. Foucault, M. An introduction]. Le souci de soi [The history of sexuality: The care of the self].
Fox, J. Osho Rajneesh. Salt Lake City, UT: Giddens, A. The transformation of intimacy: Love, sexuality and eroticism in modern societies. Oxford, UK: Goldman, M. Passionate journeys: Why successful women joined a cult. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. When leaders dissolve: Considering controversy and stagnation in the Osho Rajneesh movement.
Petersen Eds. Oxford University Press. Gordon, J. The golden guru: The strange journey of Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh. Lexington, KY: Greene Press.