रस: काव्य को पढ़ते या सुनते समय हमे जिस आनंद की अनुभूति होती है, उसे ही रस कहा जाता है| रस का तात्पर्य भाव. Ras hindi grammar class 10 pdf download There are no official rule books for Hindi grammar. HINDI VYAKARAN FOR CLASS 10 PDF Hindi. About hindi vyakaran ras: Your mobile life are made easy and possible by hindi vyakaran pdf. hindi vyakaran pdf class 10 is an amazing app that allows its users .
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Hindi Grammar Book PDF Download, Hindi Grammar PDF Download, General Hhindi Book Notes PDF, General Hindi Book Notes PDF. This PDF is important for various exams like UPSC, IAS, RAS, UPPSC, MPPSC, BPSC, To Download Free Study Material: Hindi Grammar PDF (हिन्दी. This PDF Contain काव्य रस हिंदी Hindi Grammar notes For various competitive exams, Handwritten notes For SSC CGL, IAS, RAS, Railway Exams.
Amar BaI gayaa. Another literary style, Urdu, has also developed from Khariboli and it uses the Perso-Arabic script and borrows from Perso-Arabic sources. In short, it will fulfill the needs of the basic language learner as well as provide useful information for the linguist and the general reader. Main Verbs There are three types of main verbs: Voice The verbal stem can also be used to indicate the passive voice.
Vajpeyi, K. Hindi shabdanushasan. Nagri Pracharni Sabha. Verma, M. Wali, Kashi and Omkar N Koul A Cognitive- Descriptive Grammar. Besides being the official language of these states it is also the official language of government of India along with English.
According to the census, it is spoken by ,, speakers which include the speakers of its various dialects and variations of speech grouped under Hindi. It is also spoken by a large number of people of Indian origin settled abroad. Dialects and Classification Hindi and Urdu languages have their origins in Khariboli spoken in areas around Delhi. Khariboli was adopted by the Afghans, Persians, and Turks as a common language of interaction with the local population during the period of Islamic invasions and the establishment of Muslim rule in the north of India between the eighth and tenth centuries AD.
In time, it developed a variety called Urdu with significant borrowings from Arabic and Persian and that uses a Persian script. This latter variety looked to Sanskrit for linguistic borrowings and Sanskrit, Prakrits, and Apabhramsas for literary conventions. It is this variety that became known as Hindi. Hindi and Urdu have a common form known as Hindustani which is essentially a Hindi-Urdu mixed language. This was the variety that was adopted by Indian leaders as a symbol of national identity during the struggle for freedom.
Hindi has been used as a literary language since the twelfth century.
The development of prose, however, began only in the eighteenth century, which marks the emergence of Hindi as a full-fledged literary language. Eastern Hindi and Western Hindi. The modern representative of the corresponding Apabhamsa is Eastern Hindi and the Shaurasena Apabhramsa of the middle Doab is the parent of Western Hindi. In the Eastern group Grierson discusses three dialects: Awadhi, Bagheli, and Chattisgarhi.
In the Western group he discusses five dialects: Eastern Hindi is bounded on the north by the language of the Nepal Himalaya and on the west by various dialects of Western Hindi, of which the principal are Kanauji and Bundeli. On the east, it is bounded by the Bhojpuri dialect of Bihari and by Oriya. On the South it meets forms of the Marathi language. Western Hindi extends to the foot of the Himalayas on the north, south to the Jamna valley, and occupies most of Bundelkhand and a part of central provinces on the east side.
The Hindi region is traditionally divided into two: The dialects spoken in the regions of Bihar i. Now, all of these dialects are also covered under the term Hindi. The standard Hindi developed from the Khariboli has borrowed lexical items from Sanskrit and is the vehicle of all official literary and commercial communication.
It is intelligible throughout the broad Hindi language region. Another literary style, Urdu, has also developed from Khariboli and it uses the Perso-Arabic script and borrows from Perso-Arabic sources. Hindi — Urdu Historical and cultural processes and the linguistic affinity which exists in Indian languages led to the emergence of Hindi-Urdu or so- called Hindustani as the lingua-franca of major areas of India long before its freedom.
In an earlier period, the languages of administration, Sanskrit in the case of the earliest Hindu kingdoms, Persian in the case of the Muslim dynasties, and English in the case of the British regime, have mostly remained confined to the elite. The Slave, Tughluq, Lodi, and Mughal dynasties used Persian in their administration, but they used the local language spoken in and around Delhi for communicating with the people for their day-to- day needs.
This local language was a form of Apbhramsha, which eventually became Khariboli; they called this language Hindi - a language belonging to Hind. Thus, the Hindi language derived its name from the Persian towards the end of the 12th century or beginning of the 13th century.
Hindi-Urdu became the medium of communication between the Muslim rulers and the local people. The southern variety of the speech, best known as Dakhini, also became the medium of literature and socio-religious discourse. This variety is influenced by Dravidian languages as a result of language contact.
Due to a common structural basis, Hindi and Urdu continued to be treated as synonymous for centuries at least up to the period of Mirza Ghalib. Primarily in the domain of different genres of literature, Hindi and Urdu started drifting away from each other not only in the use of two different scripts, but also in literary styles and vocabulary.
Hindi started drawing more and more from Sanskrit, and Urdu from Persian and Arabic. The processes continue today. During British rule, when English was adopted as the official language, local languages were assigned roles for certain functions at lower levels of administration. A competition started between the proponents or supporters of Hindi and those of Urdu for official recognition of their languages.
This was followed by the recognition accorded to Hindi in certain areas. Hindi and Urdu were involved in controversy and mutual competition for their recognition in various domains of education and administration. On the one hand, there were proponents of Hindi and Urdu who were eager to maintain separate linguistic identities, and, on the other hand, some national leaders wanted to develop Hindustani as a combined linguist identity on the basis of its use by the general population.
Linguistic Characteristics Hindi shares major linguistic characteristics with other Indo-Aryan languages. It has ten vowels. The length of vowels is phonemic. All vowels can be nasalized and nasalization is phonemic.
The Hindi syllable contains a vowel as its nucleus, followed or preceded by consonants. Words usually have two or three syllables.
Nouns are inflected for number, gender and case. There are two numbers: Nouns are assigned one of the two genders. The gender of inanimate objects is not predictable from the form or meaning. Pronouns are inflected for number and case. Adjectives are of two types: The first type is uninflected for number, gender, and case, whereas the second type is not. Verbs are inflected for person, number, gender, tense, mood, and aspect. There are three tenses: Hindi is a verb-final language.
Hindi is written in the Devanagari script which originated from Brahmi. The Devanagari script for Hindi is standardized, but certain minor variations still exist. In this grammar we are using Devanagari and Roman scripts for the data from the language. Status As stated above, Hindi is the official language of the Union of India and ten states. It is spoken by the largest number of people in India.
It is widely used in administration, education, and mass media. The use of Hindi in administration at the Union level as well as in the Hindi speaking states is not free from problems Koul a.
There are problems related to the development of its administrative register. The main problems related to the development of the administrative register are: Problems related to its practical use include the lack of proper monitoring, lack of encouragement, and absence of strong political will.
The implementation of the OLP at the Union level has become the victim of political indecision, the attitude of its protagonists, the lack of will of the monitoring agencies, and the lack of adherence to the rules and regulations set up for it.
Even after its continuous use in administration for more than sixty years, its development is still questioned by critics. There is a need to review the OLP, and the rules and procedures of its implemenation to identify its problems and resolve them. The Constitution of India adopted in provides for the use of Hindi in Devanagari script as the official language of the Union.
Article states: The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in the Devanagari script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purpose of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals. Article provides a directive for the development of Hindi as follows: It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, whenever necessary or desirable, its vocabulary primarily from Sanskrit and secondarily from other languages.
The Hindi language was supposed to replace English in , fifteen years after the adoption of the Constitution of India. It was argued that Hindi was not developed enough to replace English in its administrative domain. Thus, the Official Language Act OLA was passed in providing for the continuation of English as an associate official language in the Union and also for its use in parliament for an indefinite period of time.
The Act dealt with the setting-up of the Committee on Official Language, authorization of the Hindi translation of Central and State acts, optional use of Hindi in judgments of High courts, etc. The passing of the OLA was successful in achieving timely political gains, but it has not been in the interest of the development of Hindi and its use as the sole official language of the Union in the years to come.
The development of Hindi has become a complex concern for the Government of India. The development of Hindi is often linked to the development of other regional languages. It is the duty of the Government of India to promote the spread of the Hindi language. The development of Hindi as well as other regional languages is in the interest of the educational and cultural advancement of the country. Efforts should be made to implement the Three-Language Formula.
Compulsory knowledge of Hindi or English should be essential for the public service of the Union. Languages of the Eighth Schedule should be used as alternative media for examinations for all-India and higher Central services.
The Resolution adopted by the Ministry of Home Affairs has turned out to be merely a political policy statement. It was not followed by an action plan for the promotion or the spread of the Hindi language in a sustainable manner, although it was rightly realized that the development of Hindi and regional languages is necessary for the educational and cultural advancement of the country. No clear-cut strategies were framed for encouraging their use in education.
It did not stop the mushrooming of competing English-medium private schools. The Union Public Service Commission UPSC has made a provision for the use of languages of the Eighth Schedule as alternative media for competitive examinations, but, in the absence of adequate study materials in Hindi and regional languages, English continues to reign supreme as the only viable medium of examinations.
Hindi is taught to the officers and staff of the Central service during their in-service training, but there is no urgency for its use as long as English continues as an associate official language.
The Resolution makes important recommendations, but in the absence of an effective action plan and a sense of urgency on the part of the agencies involved, these recommendations are not implemented properly.
Hindi has a significant role in education.
It is used as a subject of study as well as a medium of education in India from the primary level to the university level in all the Hindi-speaking states in India. It is also used as a medium for technical education at the lower levels. Various organizations at the Union and state levels are engaged in the preparation of textbooks and supplementary instructional materials in Hindi. English continues to be a preferred medium of instruction for science and technology at the higher levels.
Hindi has a prominent role in both electronic and print media. Hindi is widely used in programs on radio and television and in films. The language style of Hindi used in electronic media is close to the spoken variety of so-called Hindustani.
In the print media, styles vary from high Hindi to that commonly understood by the Hindi- Urdu speech community. Whereas a few newspapers and periodicals prefer high Hindi or the Sanskritized style, others prefer to use the Urdu vocabulary. A large number of newspapers, periodicals, and journals are published in Hindi. Grammars in Hindi Beginning in the eighteenth century, Hindi has a long tradition of grammatical literature which falls under the categories of a traditional grammars, b comparative and historical grammars, and c modern linguistic grammars.
Bhatia provides a critical survey of the Hindi grammatical tradition. Comparative and historical grammars are mostly concerned with presenting the diachronic description of the grammatical features at different linguistic levels, especially phonology and morphology.
They are useful for historical linguists and those interested in the comparative linguistics of Indo-Aryan languages. Modern linguistic grammars in Hindi have been written with various objectives.
Most of the modern linguistic grammars deal with some aspects of syntax at length and tend to apply the western theoretical models and raise theoretical issues. They are useful for linguists interested in theoretical discussions and are of little use to the language learners and teachers of Hindi or to general readers.
It is important to mention a few grammars here. Aryendra Sharma prepared first detailed descriptive grammar of modern Hindi in English. It has been revised and printed several times. Though written in a traditional format it presents a good description of Hindi. Different linguistic aspects of Hindi have been described in various dissertations and independent grammatical studies lately. I will specially mention three recent works: Mountaut , Kachru , and Agnihotri written with different objectives.
Moutaut provides a functional description of Hindi from a typological perspective. She provides a brief phonological outline of standard Hindi, its morphological analysis, an analysis of simple clauses and complex sentences.
The final section provides representative features of standard Hindi, its various dialects with special reference to other neighboring Indo-Aryan languages. She presents review of the earlier works on the subject and uses examples from various written texts. It is a first linguistic grammar of Hindi written from a typological point of view and is useful for linguists working in the area of linguistic typology with special reference to Indo-Aryan languages. Kachru describes the structure of modern Hindi keeping in view primarily the sociolinguistic context of language use.
She provides description of sounds, devices of word formation, rules of phrases, and sentence constructions and conventions and practices of language use in spoken and written texts keeping in view recent linguistic theories. This is quite useful for linguists and language learners of Hindi in various situations.
Agnihotri is a practical reference guide to the core structures and linguistic features of Hindi. He provides brief description of various simple, compound and complex structures of Hindi. Word morphology, phonology, and issues related to Devanagari script are dealt with adequate examples. It is useful for linguists and students of Hindi for reference. There is a scope for a pedagogically oriented grammar which provides essential information for the use of Hindi language learners as well as teachers.
The present Modern Hindi Grammar is an effort in this direction. It is pedagogically oriented; utilizing simpler terminology and authentic data from standard spoken and written Hindi; providing useful descriptions and tables of grammatical categories as well as simple descriptions of phrases, and sentence types designed for the use of language learners, teachers of Hindi at various levels. The Phonology describes segmental phonemes vowels, consonants , suprasegmentals length, stress, intonation , and morphophonology alternations, deletion and insertion, allomorphs.
The Morphology provides descriptions of nominal morphology noun inflection, gender, number, case, postpositions, pronouns, adjectives , verb morphology types of verbs, verb inflections, voice, tense, aspect, mood, non-finite verb forms , and adverbs.
The Syntax describes the structure of phrases, sentence types, complex and compound constructions, other syntactic constructions among other items. The Lexicon presents a classified vocabulary of Hindi under 12 sub-sections. It is followed by Index. Phonological Units Segmental The pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism is involved in the production of all phonetic segments of the language.
Distinctive Segments The inventory of the distinctive segments of Hindi is as follows: Vowels Front Central Back High i: The nasalization is phonemic in Hindi. Description of Phonemes 2. Vowels Oral Vowels There is a contrast in the position of the tongue, the height of the tongue, and the rounding of the lips in the articulation of vowels.
Aama a: All the vowels can be nasalized. Consonants Consonants are classified into different groups on the basis of their manner and place of articulation. Examples of phonemic consonantal segments of Hindi are presented in minimal or near minimal pairs. Non-phonemic phonetic segments are also exemplified. The examples given below represent their phonetic transcription.
Stops occur at initial, medial, and final positions of words. BaalaU bha: Qana dhan wealth AaQaa a: Kaodnaa khodna: Affricates occur in the initial, medial and final positions of words. They occur at all positions.
K,bar xabar news AK,baar axba: The velar nasal occurs in medial and final positions only. Palatal and velar nasals are not assigned any phonemic status in Hindi. Phonetically they are pronounced in the speech only when they are followed by palatal and velar voiced consonant phonemes.
They occur before homorganic voiced consonants. Phonotactics 2. Vowel Sequences In Hindi only two vowel sequences are permissible. Consonant Clusters 2. Word-initial Consonant Clusters Word-initial consonant clusters are not as frequent as the word- medial consonant clusters. Brahma by byaah bya: Word-medial Consonant Clusters Consonant clusters occur frequently in the medial position.
Most of these clusters are formed across syllable or morpheme boundaries. There are some restrictions in the formation of consonant clusters as follows: Examples of the consonant clusters are given below.
Word-final Consonant Clusters Consonant clusters occur less frequently in the word-final position. The assignment of the medial units to syllables does not depend on morphological structure. The first consonant of the medial cluster is assigned to the preceding syllable and the remaining elements of the unit to the following syllable.
AakaSa a: Indian maukabalaa muka: Suprasegmental Features Nasalization, length, stress, intonation, and juncture are suprasegmental features. Nasalization Nasalization is an important suprasegmental feature in Hindi. Nasalization is distinctive so it has phonemic status.
Length Length is phonemic in Hindi. There are three pairs of short and long vowels: The following minimal pairs illustrate the contrast in the length of these vowels. Stress Stress is not a distinctive feature of Hindi; it is not in phonemic contrast. Hindi is a syllable-timed language, sometimes individual words are stressed for emphasis only. Usually, the syllable preceding the consonant cluster gets stress.
A sar aksar always AMdr andar inside Aakar a: Intonation There are four major types of intonational patterns: Intonations have syntactic rather than emotional content. Statements have a high-fall intonation pattern. Intonation peaks are generally positioned on the penultimate word or on the negative particle if there is one. Q he yesterday came-Q Did he come yesterday? Information questions have a rise-and-fall intonation. The rise in intonation is registered on the question word and the fall is attained gradually.
Aap kba baaja,ar gae? Mohan who-dat met-3s Who did Mohan meet? Commands generally follow the mid-level intonational pattern. Contrastive and Emphatic Intonation The contrastive and emphatic intonations are the same as they employ more than the average stress on the constituents of a sentence.
The element to be contrasted carries a slightly higher stress than the emphasized segment. For example, any of the elements can be emphasized in the following sentence depending on the degree of emphasis.
The emphasis is indicated by bolding different elements. Aap idllaI jaa[e. You go to Delhi. Juncture Juncture is functional in Hindi.
Internal juncture may be considered as phonemic juncture. Mostly, the medial clusters have juncture because those sequences of sounds do not occur in the same syllable. Kanaa kha: External juncture occurs between each word and the words joined by this juncture retain their separate identity. There is no guarantee of life or death. Morphophonemics Various morphological processes can be marked as loss, addition, and replacement of phonemes.
They usually takes place in compound words. Morphology This chapter deals with the morphological structure of different word classes, describing their inflectional and derivational forms. Word classes described include nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, particles, connectives, and interjections. Nouns 3. Noun Inflection Nouns in Hindi are inflected for gender, number, and case. Gender There are two genders in Hindi: Besides the natural gender of animate nouns, every inanimate noun is assigned a gender.
Though the gender of a large number of inanimate nouns can be predicted by their endings, there are no hard and fast rules for assigning the genders.
Masculine forms are traditionally taken as basic. The gender formation involves a suffixation, b phonological changes, and c suppletion. We can make some general observations as follows. Masculine Feminine QaaobaI dhobi: Masculine Feminine pMKa pankha: Masculine Feminine dasa da: Number There are two numbers: Case The syntactic and semantic functions of noun phrases are expressed by case-suffixes, postpositions and derivational processes. There are two cases: Case-suffixes and postpositions are used to express syntactic and semantic functions.
Case suffixes are defined as bound suffixes, which do not occur independently as words and are added only to the noun phrases. Case suffixes added to the oblique forms of nouns agreeing in number and gender. Postpositions Postpositions have specific semantic functions. They express the semantic dimensions of a noun such as benefaction, manner, or location.
The main postpositions are: The Postposition nao ne The postposition nao ne is used with subject noun phrases usually with the transitive verbs in the past tense. The verb agrees with the object. I-erg letter wrote I wrote a letter. Whenever the objects are followed by the dative postposition kao ko, the verb remains in masculine singular form.
The nao ne postposition is not used with the subjects of the following transitive verbs: Uma-nom shirt brought Uma brought a shirt. The postposition nao ne is used with the following intransitive verbs: I-erg hot water with bathed I took a bath in hot water. I this work do completed I finished this work. In the case of a few transitive verbs like samaJanaa samjhna: I understood he sick is I thought he was sick. The use of the postposition nao ne is invariably found in compound verb constructions with the verb samaJanaa samjhna: I-erg matter understand took I understood the matter.
The Postposition kao ko The postposition kao ko is used in different types of sentences and is placed after nouns. It is optional when used with object nouns which are followed by conjunct verbs with an adjective or adverb and the verb. I-erg letter dat read I read the letter. He sold the book. Amar kao duK huAa.
Amar-dat pain felt Amar felt pain. Mohan-dat laugh came Mohan laughed. I self-obl brother-dat letter write-prog am I am writing a letter to my brother. The postposition kao ko is not normally used with time adverbials. I here come-fut I will come here.
Aapko pasa pInao kao yaa hO? The postposition kao ko can be used for emphasis as well. Aimat garIbaI kao pap samaJata hO. It is used to denote time. The Postposition sao se The postposition sao se is used to indicate association or mutual dealing. I he-obl-with talk do-ptc am I talk with him. Nehru children-obl with love do-ptc was Nehru used to love children.
I you-post request do-ptc am I request you. I this type people from far remain-inf like do-ptc am I like to be away from this kind of people. It is used to indicate a sense of separation or keeping away from something. It represents cause, reason and origin. It indicates the starting point, place, time, and direction.
I-obl office from telegram got I got a telegram from the office. It indicates time. It is used to indicate the difference or comparison in quality and quantity. It is used to indicate means, instrument, or agency. It indicates manner. Location 1. Duration 4. Price 6. Comparison 8. The Postposition pr par The postposition pr par is used to denote location or position, point of time of an action, sequence of actions, cause or reason, and the object of verbs. Point of time 4. Cause or reason 8.
QaaooKa donao pr ]sao saja,a hu[-M. Object of verbs The Postposition ka ka The postposition ka ka: It is used to denote possession and relationship, material or composition, worth and measure, source, origin, cause, subject or object of an act, part of a whole, purpose or characteristics or trait.
The form of this postposition agrees with the gender and number of the noun as follows. Aimat ka Baa[- Aaja Aaegaa. Aimat ko dao daost prsaaoM AaeMgao. Material or composition 4. Source, origin, or cause 8. Subject doer of an act QaaobaI ka kama AcCa hO. Object of an activity Purpose Characteristics Compound Postpositions Compound postpositions are formed by combining the postpositions ko ke, kI ki: There are, however, alternate ways of expression possible where postpositions are not used.
Examples of the usage of various semantic expressions are given below. Cause is expressed either by the i postposition sao se; or by the ii compound forms ko karNa ke ka: Function is expressed by the genitive postpositional phrase - kI trh ki: Reference is denoted by the postpositional expression ko baaro maoM ke ba: Value is expressed by the genitive or it can be denoted by the expressions kI kImat ki: The compound postposition ko baavajaUd ke ba: Aapkao imalaakr hma dsa sadsya hOM.
Exclusion is expressed by the dative postpositions ko ibanaa ke bina: Addition is expressed either by the use of the comitative compound postposition ko saaqa ke sa: Locational semantic functions are generally marked by the postposi- tions kI Aaor ki: Anterior location is expressed by the postposition ko saamanao ke sa: Posterior location is denoted by ko pICo ke pi: Interior and interior-contact locations are not distinguished. They are indicated by the postposition naIcao ni: Lateral and lateral-contact locations are expressed by the postpositions ko pasa ke pa: Amar Uma near sat Amar sat near Uma.
Citerior location is expressed by kI Aaor ki: Ulterior location is expressed by kI Aaor ki: Medial location is expressed by the terms ko baIca maoM ke bi: Citerior-anterior location is expressed by saamanao sa: The expression ko saamanao sao ke sa: Amar caaor ko saamanao KD,a hO. Amar thief-gen front-obl standing was Amar was standing in front of the thief. Motion past an object at some distance is expressed by ko baIca maoM saoo ke bi: Motion past an object at right and left angles to it is expressed using phrases such as da[-M Aaor da: Other directional locatives are exemplified as follows.
The directional postposition kI Aaor ki: Noun Derivation A large number of nouns in Hindi are derived from nouns, adjectives, and verbs by using prefixes and suffixes. In this process certain morphophonemic changes take place. Nouns from Nouns Mostly Persian and Sanskrit prefixes and suffixes are used with the nouns of Persian and Sanskrit origin respectively.
Some of these are used with native words. The most common prefixes are: Persian with K,ja,anaa xaza: Persian house kar ka: Nouns from Adjectives The most productive suffixes used for deriving abstract nouns from adjectives are -[- -i: Nouns from Verbs The suffix -naa -na: The suffixes -Asa -as, -Ana -an, -[- -i: Noun Compounds Compounds belonging to the noun category are headed by a noun, which is a final member of the group. The first member may be a noun, an adjective, or a participle and may be declined for number, gender and case.
A postposition is attached to the final member of the compound. Noun-Noun Compounds Noun-noun compounds can be divided into several subgroups based on semantic criteria: Copulative Compounds Copulative compounds, also known as co-compounds, are composed of semantically-related nouns. Each noun behaves as an independent constituent in the sense that each may be separately inflected for gender and number, though not for a postposition.
Members of some compounds occur in a fixed order. Baa[- baihna bha: Reduplicated Compounds Reduplicated compounds express exhaustive meaning. Gar Gar ghar ghar house-house every house baccaa baccaa bacca: Partially Duplicated Compounds In a partial duplicated compound, also known as an echo-compound, the second member is formed by changing the initial letter of the first member.
The meaning of the ompound extends beyond the meaning of their members. The compounds usually represent the meaning of similar or associative things. Superordinate Compounds In this type of compound, the meaning projected by the members does not in any way relate to the meaning of the compound as a whole.
Complex Compounds Complex compounds involving three or more nouns are not very common in Hindi. Hybrid Compounds In hybrid compounds, one member is usually borrowed from another language and the second member is a Hindi noun. Adjective-Noun Compounds A large number of compounds are composed of an adjective followed by a noun.
There are no single terms for them. Modifier-Noun Compounds In modifier-noun compounds, the first member acts like a modifier or source and the second member is a noun. Pronouns Pronouns are inflected for number and case. Broadly, there are seven classes of pronouns in Hindi: Pronouns in the direct and oblique cases are presented below.
In the polite speech, it is occasionally used for a person spoken about in place of yao ye. The term laaoga log may be attached to a plural pronoun for defining or emphasizing plurality: Aap laaoga a: Aapka a: Relative Pronouns Hindi has one relative pronoun: It is accompanied with vah vah in the main sentence called correlative of jaao jo.
The term laaoga log may be added to jaao jo to indicate or emphasize plurality: The oblique forms of the relative pronoun used along with the case-signs are as follows. Reflexive Pronouns Reflexive pronouns substitute and refer to a noun or pronoun which is the logical subject of the sentence. Hindi has three reflexive pronouns: Aap a: The reflexive pronoun Aap a: Note that the oblique forms of Apnao apne and Apnao Aap apne-a: Interrogative Pronouns In both singular and plural, there are two basic interrogative pronouns: The interrogative pronoun yaa kya: It is also used for denoting the interrogative nature of the sentence.
What a girl! Just like a delicate flower. Interrogative adverbial forms related to these pronouns are: Indefinite Pronouns There are two indefinite pronouns in Hindi: Direct Oblique Sg Pl Sg Pl yah yeh yao ye [sa is [na in vah vah vao ve ]sa us ]na un jaao jo jaao jo ijasa jis ijana jin saao so saao so itsa tis itna tin kao[- koi: They change to the following forms agreeing with the object noun in gender and number. As pointed out earlier, the reflexive pronoun ]Aap a: For denoting various senses of ka ka: Compound Pronouns Two, or more than two pronouns may be compounded or the same pronoun may be repeated to convey various shades of meanings.
The following are some important compound pronouns. Apnao Aap apne a: Adjectives Adjectives in Hindi can be classified into two groups: Inflected These adjectives are inflected for gender and number.
AcCo acche AcCI acchi: Uninflected These adjectives are not inflected for number and gender.
Types of Adjectives There are two broad types of adjectives: Negative qualities are expressed by a separate set of adjectives and also by adding negative prefixes. The possessive pronouns particularize or show relation. Degree of Adjectives There are three varieties of adjectival degrees: Superlative and comparative degrees of qualities are denoted with the help of the postposition sao se attached to the noun or pronoun in oblique form with which the comparison is made.
Superlative involves comparison with all. Apnao daost sao laMbaa apne dost se lamba: Derivation of Adjectives A large number of adjectives are derived from nouns by adding the suffixes -Aa -a: Noun Adjective saca sac truth saccaa sacca: AaSaa a: Numerals Numerals are adjectives indicating number. They may by divided into cardinals, ordinals, or multiplicatives. Cardinals Cardinal numeral forms in Hindi are given below. Ordinals The first six ordinals are phlaa pahla: Adjectives of Quantity Nouns denoting measure, and weight preceded by a numeral or by an adjective denoting an indefinite number, such as kao[- koi: Fractions Fractions are expressed as follows: The system of denoting fractions is also used to denote fractions of hundred, thousand, ten thousand, etc.
Multiplicatives Multiplicatives are formed by attaching gaunaa guna: The numerals 2 to 8 are slightly modified. The gaunaa guna: Approximation Approximation is expressed by placing kao[- koi: Verbs There are two types of verbs: The verb haonaa hona: They agree with their subjects in person and number.
Main Verbs There are three types of main verbs: A simple verb may consist of one main verb and person, gender, number, tense, and aspect markers. We will classify the verbal constructions as intransitive, transitive, ditransitive, causative, dative, conjunct, and compound. Intransitive Verbs Intransitive verbs like Aa a: Subjects in such cases are controlled by the verb agreement. Aimat Gar jaaegaa. Amit home go-fut Amit will go home. Intransitive verbs in the past tense take their subjects in the direct case.
Aimat samaya pr Aayaa. Amit time at came Amit came on time. Intransitive Transitive Kolanaa khelna: Mohan played. Mohan played a game. Uma-erg book-fs read-fs Uma read a book. Amar nao AK,baar K,rIda. Amar-erg newspaper-ms bought-ms Amar bought a newspaper. Some transitive verbs are derived from intransitives by certain vocalic changes to the verb roots.
Intransitive Transitive mar mar die maar ma: Ditransitive Verbs Some verbs like donaa dena: Ditransitives take three arguments, namely, subject, object, and indirect objects.
Indirect objects are always marked in the dative. Other arguments follow the transitive pattern noted above. Amar nao ]maa kao iktaba dI. Amar-erg Uma-dat book-fs gave-fs Amar gave a book to Uma.
Uma-erg child-dat story-fs told-fs Uma told a story to the child. Causative Verbs Casuative verbs may be derived from transitive verbs by adding causative suffixes. They include the transitive verbs derived from intransitives. Causative verbs are, therefore, invariably transitive and take the same forms as other transitive verbs.
There are two types of causative forms: Causal I forms Causal I verbs are formed by adding the causal suffix -a: As a result of adding this suffix, certain morphophonemic changes take place. Transitive Causal I kr kar do kra kara: Transitive Causal I doK dekh see idKa dikha: Transitive Causal I pI pi: Causal I Causal II saunaa suna: Dative Verbs Most dative verbs fall into the stative-inchoative category of verbs.
They represent a small class of verbs but are very frequently used. They can be derived by substituting the intransitive verbs haonaa hona: Conjunct Verbs A conjunct verb consists of a noun or an adjective and a verb, which takes all the verbal inflections. The verbs may be transitive or intransitive.
One class of conjunct verbs is formed by the combination of a noun and an intransitive verb, which requires the subject to be marked in the oblique case. This class includes psychological predicates such as gaussaa Aanaa gussa: Amar kao gaussaa Aayaa. Amar-dat anger came Amar was angry. Mohan-dat poor on pity came Mohan took pity on the poor.
The explicators belong to a small group of verbs. The original meaning of the explicator is lost. They add certain aspectual values, such as completion of an action, benefaction, or intensification, to the main verb. The most frequent explicators are listed below with their actual meaning and the aspectual meanings they add to main verbs.
Explicators Aspectual Values Aa a: A large number of compound verbs are formed by the combination of verbs in which the first verb represents the meaning and the explicator takes all the grammatical inflections.
Examples of such verbs are: Aa jaanaa a: There are verbal phrases in which there are two or more inflexible verbs, such as pIta gayaa pi: Tense Tense and aspect are major grammatical categories of the verbal system in Hindi. There are three grammatical aspects: Each of them is expressed by marking the verbal stems. Hindi has six tenses: The present tense represents an ongoing action, a habitual, repeated or characteristic action, or simply expresses a fact. Amar Gar jaa rha hO. Amar home go-prog is Amar is going home.
The verb in 1 is in the progressive aspect and in 2 in the habitual aspect. The past tense represents an ongoing action or an action completed in the past. Amar idllaI jaa rha qaa. Amar Delhi-obl go-prog was Amar was going to Delhi. The verb in 3 is in the progressive aspect and in 4 is in the perfect aspect. The future tense represents an action yet to take place or a state yet to come into being. Uma tomorrow Delhi-obl go-fut Uma will go to Delhi tomorrow. The present perfect tense represents a completed act the effect of which is still present.
The past perfect tense represents an action completed in the past or before a certain past time. Amar prsaaoM savaoro Aayaa qaa. Amar day before yesterday morning-obl came be-past Amar had come the day before yesterday in the morning. Aspect Verbal forms indicating one of these aspects are specified for one of the four tenses: The combination of one of the three aspects with the four different tenses results in the production of various aspectual-tenses: It also permits the simple-perfective form.
Besides these aspectual verb forms, some non-aspectual verb forms of Hindi are the future, root subjunctive, and the imperative and infinitive forms. They will be discussed separately. Habitual Aspect The habitual aspectual-tenses are formed by adding the following suffixes to the verb stems agreeing with the subject in gender and number: Present and past habitual forms are used to express habitual actions or the state of affairs viewed from the perspective of the present and the past respectively.
Present-habitual 1. Present-habitual in conjunction with the adverb ABaI abhi: I hope it helps everyone. Nice Post. Thanks for sharing your thoughts with us.
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Hello sir.. Now the mains exam will be in December. Sunday, April 8, Hindi Grammar. News Flash: Posted by Deepansh Gupta at Hindi Grammar. Abhishek Sagar March 3, at Deepansh Gupta March 25, at 3: Deepansh Gupta August 16, at