Touched Fire Manic Depressive Artistic Temperament X - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. u. Audiobook PDF Touched With Fire: Manic-Depressive Illness and the Artistic Temperament Read The New Book Read Online Click to. Touched with Fire: Manic-Depressive Illness and the Artistic Temperament [Kay Redfield Jamison] on link-marketing.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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Touched With Fire by Kay Redfield Jamison - The definitive work on the profound and surprising links between manic-depression and creativity, from the. Touched with Fire: Manic‐Depressive Illness and the Artistic Temperament. NY: Free Press, pp. $ (paper) (Reviewed by George Becker). Read Touched With Fire by Kay Redfield Jamison for free with a 30 day free trial. 2 This book is about being more or less touched ; specifically, it is about.
Actions Shares. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Manic-depressive, or bipolar, illness encompasses a wide range of mood disorders and temperaments. I have struggled in vain against the influence of this melancholy— You will believe me when I say that I am still miserable in spite of the great improvement in my circumstances. Old Password. Besides those whose swings of mood never intermit, there are others with more or less prolonged intervals of normality.
Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Citing Literature Number of times cited according to CrossRef: The idea and its ramifications , Intellectual News , 10 , 1 , 91 , Volume 32 , Issue 1 January Pages Related Information. Email or Customer ID. Resources and Downloads. Touched With Fire Trade Paperback Get a FREE e-book by joining our mailing list today!
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See More Categories. Your First Name. Zip Code. Thank you! Modern psychopharmacology and genetic research raise almost endless possibilities, both liberating and disturbing, but the ethical waters remain disconcertingly uncharted. No psychiatric illness has been more profoundly affected by the advances in clinical and basic neuroscience research than manic-depressive illness.
The efficacy of a wide range of medications has given clinicians unprecedented options and patients lifesaving choices. The fact that lithium, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are now the standard of care for manic-depressive illness and psychotherapy or psychoanalysis alone , without medication, is usually considered to be malpractice raises particularly interesting questions about the treatment of writers and artists.
Some artists resist entirely the idea of taking medication to control their mood swings and behaviors; interestingly, however, there is some evidence that, as a group, artists and writers disproportionately seek out psychiatric care; certainly many—including Byron, Schumann, Tennyson, van Gogh, Fitzgerald, and Lowell—repeatedly sought help from their physicians.
Other writers and artists stop taking their medications because they miss the highs or the emotional intensity associated with their illness, or because they feel that drug side effects interfere with the clarity and rapidity of their thought or diminish their levels of enthusiasm, emotion, and energy.
Although manic-depressive illness has long been assumed to be genetic in origin, and its strong tendency to run in some families but not in others has been observed for well over a thousand years, only the recent radical advances in molecular biology have provided the techniques to enable highly sophisticated searches for the genes involved.
Similarly, an almost unbelievable increase in the rate of study of brain structure and function has resulted in a level of biological knowledge about manic-depressive illness—this most humanly expressed, psychologically complicated, and moody of all diseases—that is without parallel in psychiatry.
The ethical issues arising from such knowledge, and from the possibility that such a devastating illness can confer individual and societal advantage, are staggering: Would one want to get rid of this illness if one could? Sterilization of patients with hereditary psychoses, most directly applicable to those with manic-depressive illness, was once practiced in parts of the United States, and large numbers of individuals with manic-depressive illness were systematically killed in German concentration camps.
Even today many provinces in China enforce mandatory sterilization and abortion policies for those with hereditary mental illness. What will be the roles of amniocentesis, other types of prenatal diagnosis, and abortion once the manic-depressive genes are found?
What are the implications for society of future gene therapies and the possible early prevention of manic-depressive illness? Does psychiatric treatment have to result in happier but blander and less imaginative artists? What does it mean for biographers and critics that manic-depressive illness and its temperaments are relatively common in the writers and artists they study?
These and other issues are discussed in the final chapter. Ultimately this book is about the temperaments and moods of voyagers: It is about voyages: I feel the jagged gash with which my contemporaries died, 3 wrote Robert Lowell about his generation of feverishly brilliant, bruised, and wrathful poets.
There was, he felt,. John B[erryman] in his mad way keeps talking about something evil stalking us poets. Robert Lowell and John Berryman, along with their contemporaries Theodore Roethke, Delmore Schwartz, Randall Jarrell, and Anne Sexton, were—among other things— stalked by their manic-depressive illness.
Mercurial by temperament, they were subject to disastrous extremes of mood and reason. All were repeatedly hospitalized for their attacks of mania and depression; Berryman, Jarrell, and Sexton eventually committed suicide. What is the nature of this disease of mood and reason that so often kills and yet so often is associated with the imaginative arts? What kind of illness takes those who have it on journeys where they, like Robert Lowell, both do and do not need their Dantes?
Manic-depressive, or bipolar, illness encompasses a wide range of mood disorders and temperaments. These vary in severity from cyclothymia—characterized by pronounced but not totally debilitating changes in mood, behavior, thinking, sleep, and energy levels—to extremely severe, life-threatening, and psychotic forms of the disease.
Manic-depressive illness is closely related to major depressive, or unipolar, illness; in fact, the same criteria described in detail in Appendix A are used for the diagnosis of major depression as for the depressive phase of manic-depressive illness. These depressive symptoms include apathy, lethargy, hopelessness, sleep disturbance sleeping far too much or too little , slowed physical movement, slowed thinking, impaired memory and concentration, and a loss of pleasure in normally pleasurable events.
Additional diagnostic criteria include suicidal thinking, self-blame, inappropriate guilt, recurrent thoughts of death, a minimum duration of the depressive symptoms two to four weeks , and significant interference with the normal functioning of life.
Unlike individuals with unipolar depression, those suffering from manic-depressive illness also experience episodes of mania or hypomania mild mania.
These episodes are characterized by symptoms that are, in many ways, the opposite of those seen in depression. Thus, during hypomania and mania, mood is generally elevated and expansive or, not infrequently, paranoid and irritable ; activity and energy levels are greatly increased; the need for sleep is decreased; speech is often rapid, excitable, and intrusive; and thinking is fast, moving quickly from topic to topic.
Hypomanic or manic individuals usually have an inflated selfesteem, as well as a certainty of conviction about the correctness and importance of their ideas. This grandiosity can contribute to poor judgment, which, in turn, often results in chaotic patterns of personal and professional relationships.
Other common features of hypomania and mania include spending excessive amounts of money, impulsive involvements in questionable endeavors, reckless driving, extreme impatience, intense and impulsive romantic or sexual liaisons, and volatility. In its extreme forms mania is characterized by violent agitation, bizarre behavior, delusional thinking, and visual and auditory hallucinations. In its milder variants the increased energy, expansiveness, risk taking, and fluency of thought associated with hypomania can result in highly productive periods.
The range in severity of symptoms is reflected in the current psychiatric diagnostic system. Bipolar I disorder, what one thinks of as classic manic-depressive illness, refers to the most severe form of affective illness; individuals diagnosed as bipolar I must meet the full diagnostic criteria for both mania and major depressive illness.
The standard diagnostic criteria for mania, hypomania, major depression, and cyclothymia, as well as more clinically descriptive criteria for cyclothymia, are given in Appendix A.
Bipolar II disorder, on the other hand, is defined as the presence or history of at least one major depressive episode, as well as the existence or history of less severe manic episodes that is, hypomanias, which do not cause pronounced impairment in personal or professional functioning, are not psychotic in nature, and do not require hospitalization. Cyclothymia and related manic-depressive temperaments are also an integral and important part of the manic-depressive spectrum, and the relationship of predisposing personalities and cyclothymia to the subsequent development of manic-depressive psychosis is fundamental.
Cyclothymic temperament can be manifested in several ways—as predominantly depressive, manic, hypomanic, irritable, or cyclothymic. German psychiatrist Ernst Kretschmer described the fluidity inherent to these manic-depressive temperaments:.
Men of this kind have a soft temperament which can swing to great extremes. The path over which it swings is a wide one, namely between cheerfulness and unhappiness. Not only is the hypomanic disposition well known to be a peculiarly labile one, which also has leanings in the depressive direction, but many of these cheerful natures have, when we get to know them better, a permanent melancholic element somewhere in the background of their being.
The hypomanic and melancholic halves of the cycloid temperament relieve one another, they form layers or patterns in individual cases, arranged in the most varied combinations.
Clearly not all individuals who have cyclothymia go on to develop the full manic-depressive syndrome. But many do, and the temperamental similarities between those who meet all the diagnostic criteria for mania or major depression that is, are syndromal and those who meet them only partially that is, are subsyndromal, or cyclothymic are compelling.
British psychiatrists Dr. Eliot Slater and Sir Martin Roth have given a general description of the constitutional cyclothymic, emphasizing the natural remissions, vague medical complaints, and seasonal patterns often intrinsic to the temperament. The alternating mood states—each lasting for days, weeks, or months at a time—are continuous in some individuals but subside, leaving periods of normality, in others.
Slater and Roth also discuss the occurrence of the cyclothymic constitution in artists and writers:. Hesse have given characteristic descriptions of the condition. Besides those whose swings of mood never intermit, there are others with more or less prolonged intervals of normality. In the hypomanic state the patient feels well, but the existence of such states accentuates his feeling of insufficiency and even illness in the depressive phases.
At such times he will often seek the advice of his practitioner, complaining of such vague symptoms as headache, insomnia, lassitude, and indigestion. In typical cases such alternative cycles will last a lifetime.
In cyclothymic artists, musicians, and other creative workers the rhythm of the cycles can be read from the dates of the beginning and cessation of productive work. Some cyclothymics have a seasonal rhythm and have learned to adapt their lives and occupations so well to it that they do not need medical attention.
The distinction between full-blown manic-depressive illness and cyclothymic temperament is often an arbitrary one; indeed, almost all medical and scientific evidence argues for including cyclothymia as an integral part of the spectrum of manic-depressive illness.
Such milder mood and energy swings often precede overt clinical illness by years about one-third of patients with definite manic-depressive illness, for example, report bipolar mood swings or hypomania predating the actual onset of their illness. These typically begin in adolescence or early adulthood and occur most often in the spring or autumn, on an annual or biennial basis.
First, approximately one out of three patients with cyclothymia eventually develops full syndromal depression, hypomania, or mania; this is in marked contrast to a rate of less than one in twenty in control populations. While the specific genes responsible for manic-depressive illness have not yet been identified, promising regions on the chromosomes have been located.
It is probable that at least one of the genes will be isolated within the next few years. Manic-depressive illness, often seasonal, is recurrent by nature; left untreated, individuals with this disease can expect to experience many, and generally worsening, episodes of depression and mania.
It is important to note, however, that most individuals who have manic-depressive illness are normal most of the time; that is, they maintain their reason and their ability to function personally and professionally.