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TEFL courses in person and tutored those taking distance your lesson plan so that they can talk Learning English as a Foreign Language for Dummies. All and all, this book is your free ticket. to. the world of speaking better and fluent English Spoken Engli Methods for Teaching Learning Strategies in the. 21 xii Teaching English as a Foreign Language For Dummies What kind of person makes an ideal TEFL teacher? 22 Does it matter that I'm not a.
Permissions Request permission to reuse content from this site. In an open pairs exercise, you ask a student questions or role play in full view and hear- ing of everyone else in the room. Taking someone from the basics of the language to independence is continu- ally rewarding. This is why an important aspect of TEFL work is to present lessons in an enjoyable and engaging way. Another approach is to ask the students to actu- ally do something to show they understand. Presenting to the Class Coping with Younger Learners.
Selected type: Added to Your Shopping Cart. Evaluation Copy Request an Evaluation Copy. Table of contents Introduction 1 Part I: Putting Your Lesson Together 47 Chapter 4: Starting from the Beginning: Planning the Lesson 49 Chapter 5: Standing in the Spotlight: Presenting to the Class 67 Chapter 6: Giving Correction and Feedback Chapter 8: Being Materialistic!
Teaching Skills Classes Chapter Taken as Read: Teaching Reading Lessons Chapter Ahmad Hakim. Ajam Muazzam. David Deubelbeiss. Meysi Hutapea. Kee Li Li. Corina Croitoru. Hamoud Kadha.
Carmen Yong. Reham Ismail. More From calin calin. Popular in Language. Vidyut Roy. Amy Bilsborough. Michaela Aedreen. Kiyoung Yoon. S Bera. Mary O. Michael Oguntuga O. Ai Tuyen Nguyen.
Ernst Mach. Other objectives for taught certificate courses are: Before you start, the course provider sends you an EFL reading list and often asks you to complete a work book that provides an introduction to three important areas of the course. One is the unknown language section, the second is a grammar section and the third section is about how to teach.
Some courses include lessons in a foreign language so that you understand how the students in your class feel. Through these lessons you can gain the dual perspective of both a teacher and a student and experience various teaching techniques.
You produce a project based on these lessons near the end of the course. Teaching practice is an essential part of the course so expect real live stu- dents to volunteer to take part in your lesson. You also have the opportunity to see various other experienced teachers at work and your tutor gives you continual advice, feedback and support.
Courses with a learner profile project give you the opportunity to get to know one EFL student a bit better and analyse their language skills in depth. For the project, you usually conduct an interview with the student and record it. In addition you set them a written task so that you can write about their strengths and weaknesses and discuss ways in which you would help them through EFL lessons.
A materials project is designed to help you use and adapt basic materials, such as a photograph, in the classroom. You may need to consider accommodation and travel costs too if no course provider exists where you live. Many people find it easier to fit the course into their normal lives by study- ing in this way. You can go at your own pace — and distance courses are a lot cheaper. So distance learning has a few disadvan- tages too. Many people who already have a suitable teaching qualification, such as a PGCE Postgraduate Certificate in Education , but have no experience in EFL choose to take a distance course because the certificate itself is not as impor- tant for them.
This area of the market has far less quality control than taught courses. Courses accredited by these bodies offer a reasonable standard of professionalism and someone to talk to if the course or course provider falls seriously below your expectations. You usually have assignments or work books to complete and get feedback from a designated tutor. Some course providers work in collaboration with a school so that trainees can get practical experience in the classroom, at least through observing others if not through teaching lessons themselves.
How much it costs Prices vary widely depending on what the course has to offer. This is a well- established organisation with very professional tutors. This means demonstrating deeper theoretical knowledge and more practical ability than holders of a TEFL certificate. What you can do with this certificate With a diploma, you can now call yourself a fully qualified EFL teacher. Employers usually require officially recog- nised teacher trainers to have this qualification and schools accredited by more prestigious bodies such as the British Council need to have a certain ratio of diploma qualified teachers on staff, so this makes you more desirable to employers.
You can study a diploma intensively over about three months or by distance learning over a year or two. However, with both the Trinity diploma and the DELTA you need to sit an exam and have your teaching assessed internally by your course provider and externally by the awarding body. Some universities give you credit points towards a degree if you have a rec- ognised diploma, which means that you may not have to study as many mod- ules, and this is particularly helpful for mature students returning to full-time education.
You also observe other experienced teachers and submit coursework. The DELTA is a modular course, which sometimes offers you more flexibility about what you study and when. The three modules you need to study are: On a Trinity diploma course, even distance learning trainees have to under- take a practical block where you teach lessons in preparation for the class- room teaching part of the exam.
The exam is actually a lesson in which you teach while being observed by the Trinity moderator, so you need to prepare meticulously.
You also sit for a minute interview with the moderator during which you show your understanding of pronunciation phonology and the theory behind what you do in the classroom. Most course providers give you work books that follow the Trinity stipulated syllabus along with extensive reading tasks. Examining Courses, Qualifications and Jobs 43 provider is another city and you need to commute or stay over for a week of teaching practice.
In addition, the reading list includes some essential books, so get yourself a library card or be ready to cough up. You can probably recoup your money within 18 months as your salary increases. Schools often need diploma qualified teachers to meet their quotas and raise their prestige.
So, before you get out your cheque book, speak to your direc- tor of studies about funding for your diploma course. You may have to sign a special contract agreeing to stay at the school for a specific period of time after you pass, but you can save yourself hundreds of pounds if your employer pays some or all the costs.
Another point to keep in mind is that the reading lists for diploma courses are rather long and expensive. Who really wants to keep all those books after the course is finished anyway? Staying in for in-house training Schools that have their own unique methodology often offer in-house training in their method.
These programmes offer several advantages: So, providing that you impress the trainers, you usually have a job waiting for you. Some people find schools with a strict method- ology a bit stifling to their creativity. Teachers sometimes get bored and want to move away from the prescribed material, which may not be allowed. Professional development programmes are one of the hallmarks of respon- sible, caring TEFL employers. So there should be opportunities to improve while on the job. Getting Started in TEFL to set up peer observations where teachers watch each other teach and offer constructive feedback.
Banking on Salaries So the question is: What TEFL jobs lack in riches, they certainly make up for in charm and interest. So this job is for people who like people, who like travelling, or at least meeting travellers, and like sharing knowledge. Let me put it like this: Now, by a full-time job I mean 25 to 35 hours a week depending on the teaching method. Some teaching methods require no preparation at all whereas others require about 20 minutes preparation per hour of teaching for an experienced teacher.
Your timetable may also include teaching the same lesson to more than one class and this reduces preparation time as well. Business English and one-to-one-tuition organisations often pay more but fewer teaching hours are available. Before accepting a job, find out whether you have to pay your own local taxes and whether the salary advertised is gross or net.
Ask about the location of your classes too. If you have to travel around town to teach your clients, you need to agree on travel expenses. This excellent website has various search options and a facil- ity for entering an online CV so that you can respond to jobs adverts in an instant. This is a good way to get your first teaching job in EFL.
Summer schools employ teachers with a range of experience and qualifications for a few weeks or even three months at a time. You may have to move away for a while but most offer subsidised accommodation. This gives you experi- ence in being around groups of foreign language students and puts you in contact with people in the industry. Another option is to use the contacts of your TEFL course provider. Employers very often have close links with schools and colleges in the UK or other English speaking countries.
Ask your tutor about job vacancies early on in your course and you may just get a head start on your classmates. Some larger chains of language schools have job opportunities worldwide. Keep in mind that the academic year starts in September, so start sending these organisations your CV in the summer. Apply in March and April for summer jobs. In most cases you write to the director of studies and include a brief covering letter.
I have seen too many CVs wind up in the bin because of poor grammar and spelling. And try to make your CV as relevant as possible by emphasising experiences where you travelled, learned a foreign language, taught someone or managed people. Take a look at their website www. Its website is www. See www. Email dos avalonschool. You must have a degree and TEFL certificate to apply. Salaries are modest but VSO provides accommodation and you can apply for various grants. You need to be under 68 years of age to apply.
Contact hr ihlondon. It advertises vacancies on its website at www. B eing able to structure and deliver a lesson effectively and engagingly is what TEFL is all about. This part gives you the inside track on how to do just that. In the chapters in this part, I break the lesson down into different stages Presentation, Practice and Production , so that you can see how to deliver a clear structure for learning. I also provide advice on how long the stages should last and who should be doing the talking, and how to engage your students in learning.
This part teems with examples and suggestions for classroom activities, whether you use a course book or design your own materials. Chapter 4 Starting from the Beginning: But what on earth are you going to teach them and how are you going to put it together into a lesson? Deciding What to Teach When you select information to teach in your lessons, you need to think about what level the students are at and how well your lesson fits into what they already know and what they need to know.
Most courses have a basic syllabus that acts as a road map. An EFL syllabus lists the major areas of grammar, vocabulary and functions what you can do with particular expressions a course covers. Most EFL course books have a list within the first few pages. Putting Your Lesson Together However, when you begin teaching it can be quite difficult to know what stu- dents are likely to comprehend at each level and few EFL teachers follow the same students from beginner to advanced level.
So to give you a guide, the next sections offer a basic run down of what you may expect to teach students at the different levels. I include a list of gram- mar and vocabulary students should cover during the course, along with examples.
Unlike many other courses people enrol on, EFL courses can be for adults or children and include students with an incredibly wide range of interests and goals. However, their basic needs in learning are similar. For example, all students want to learn how to speak about the past, present and future in English. Many people discover a need or desire to study English later in life. Grammar to cover includes: I, you, he, she and so on.
I am, I am not, am I? Vocabulary to cover includes: Chapter 4: Elementary At elementary level, students learn to use many more verbs instead of only to be I am, you are, it is. At this level students learn to talk and ask about matters related to daily routines. They also begin to refer to past and future time. How much, how many? Some, any. I will go.
I looked, I listened. Putting Your Lesson Together Pre-intermediate At pre-intermediate level students learn to discuss their experiences and future plans. They learn vocabulary related to travelling. These give more meaning to the main verb in a sentence.
Two examples are: I am going to study medicine at university. I ate, I thought.
I was eating. Can I book a single room please? Intermediate At this level students tend to lose their initial enthusiasm for learning English. They already know how to make sentences that refer to the past, present and future and they have a basic vocabulary for everyday situations.
However, at this level the language you teach adds sophistication and flu- ency, instead of basic communication. It becomes harder for students to mea- sure their progress so you need to work hard at maintaining interest by using topics they really enjoy. Planning the Lesson 53 Grammar to cover includes: Too many modal verbs exist to teach at once so you teach a few at a time.
If it rains, I use my umbrella. The man, who I thought looked great, was at the office. I have been singing, he has been dancing. They had seen it, you had not watched it. Would you mind? On the whole, in general. Upper-intermediate At this level students can speak and write with reasonable fluency using a range of tenses and expressions for linking ideas. They can use appropriate language in a variety of situations demonstrating an understanding of formal and informal language.
With this grammatical structure they can express the idea of paying or instructing other people to do things. For example, I had my house painted.
She said that she. The man who is standing over there is nervous. I could have come. The room was cleaned. Students easily confuse these two grammatical struc- tures for familiar activities and activities that are becoming familiar. I had been working. I will have written it. Advanced Students at this level are able to communicate with native speakers without much difficulty. They get the gist of most texts and conversations and have sufficient vocabulary to express themselves on a wide variety of topics.
Question tags, which I show in the following grammar list, provide a good example of this. This one is bigger. Sometimes you leave words out completely because the meaning is clear. For example: This one is bigger than the other thing. She bought active a motorbike and also owns stative a car. I will have been working.
Phrasal verbs consist of a verb and a preposition or two that together make a new meaning. An idiom is a phrase that has a meaning quite different from the individual words within it.
For example, students may under- stand all the words: There are a number of words that are favourites for newspapers but hardly used elsewhere, for example, Minister Rapped After Expenses Probe. Journalists also like to be very playful with the language.
They use nicknames, rhymes, and slang and students want to be in on the joke so that they can understand the press for themselves. However, it sometimes takes a great deal of explaining and a detailed analysis of the language for students to get the point.
Old and elderly have basically the same meaning. However, elderly is more polite than old when referring to people, so the connotation attitude behind the word is different. When students understand that words have similar meanings they also need to know the subtle but important differences between them. There was a storm of pro- test.
Storm is a word that describes violent weather conditions but here it means a violent outburst. Proficiency has more exercises based on inference reading between the lines. On the other hand, if your class is made up of children, they may not recognise half of the professions on your list of job titles, in which case you can drop the professions list and substitute names of games or sports equipment.
A good syllabus covers not what people can say in English but what they actu- ally need to say or usually say. So, select the practical bits and keep anything else to a minimum. Just find aspects related to the syllabus and everyday life. If the hill is too steep, your students get exhausted before they near the top; too flat and they become bored with the familiar and inattentive. Figure shows a good learning slope. Figure You start by teaching your students the word bathroom.
Planning the Lesson 57 This explanation is an example of poor grading. Good grading influences many things you do in the classroom. You need to keep grading in mind on a couple of levels: To grade a lesson well you need to select new lan- guage that builds on what students already know.
Students should have sufficient knowledge to grasp the concept. During the lesson too, you grade by explaining to students how to complete a task using rules, reminders and examples before actually setting the task.
Each task in the lesson should also be more challenging than the one before it. You want a logical order within the course sylla- bus too. This means that the grammar and vocabulary should get more difficult as you go along and the skills tasks reading, writing, listen- ing and speaking should only include language that has already been taught or is under consideration in that lesson.
A well-graded lesson starts simply and builds. Within a lesson, it helps to have particular activities for your students to work on.
Say you want your students to write a letter telling their friends back home about tourist sights in the UK. List what your students need to know in order to complete the task: A letter writing session with students who know the grammar can have a run- ning order like this: Students read a letter from one friend to another and analyse the layout and typical expressions.
You explain that the class is going to write letters about the UK and have them brainstorm their favourite sights. Find out why students like the sights and put the adjectives they use on the board. Put a plan of the letter on the board showing how many paragraphs to write and what kind of information should go in each one.
Have them write. Setting Aims and Objectives At the planning stage of your lesson, you need to think about your aims and objectives: Sample aims may be: Objectives relate to specific activities. Sample objectives may include specific goals, for instance that students should: Both you and your students benefit when you write down your aims and objectives: Getting Your Timing Down and Planning for Interaction A very important factor to consider when putting your lesson together is the amount of time available to you and how you want to spend it.
English lessons can vary from 45 minutes to 3 hours but there is a basic format for dividing the time: These stages are called Presentation, Practice and Production respectively. Each stage is longer than the one before it so that the students end up doing most of the talking. So if the triangle in Figure represents a one-hour lesson, P1 Presentation would be about 15 minutes, then P2 Practice about 20 minutes and finally P3 Production about 25 minutes.
Within each stage and throughout the lesson, think about who should be talking to whom — the interaction patterns. The traditional way of doing this is by using abbreviations like these in the margin of your lesson plan: Students work in groups Figure shows an example from a lesson plan.
Presentation Tell ST an anecdote about last weekend using Figure Planning the Lesson 61 Assembling Presentation, Practice and Production After you decide what you want to teach, you need to have a explain matters to the class thoroughly and efficiently.
So first of all you need to find an interesting way to bring this new language to their attention. Usually EFL teachers prefer to make their students curious rather than to simply state: As a child, your family probably never mentioned grammar, they just spoke.
By the same token, introducing language within a story of some kind, a conver- sation or with the aid of a picture or object is very effective. Analysing the point After introducing the new language, perhaps by means of a story or picture that creates a realistic context in an interesting way, you analyse it.
You explain whatever rules, patterns or information the students need to make the language their own in this stage. For example, for a vocabulary lesson teaching several fruits you begin with a picture of a market stall and move on to highlight and name the pears, grapes and so on. Make a connection between what students already know and the new language — add a new building block to their language tower.
Use the board to set things out clearly so that the class can take notes. Provide examples so that they have a guide as they complete the tasks later in the lesson. Ask lots of questions so that the students can demonstrate that they get it rather than just saying they do.
As this is the stage where you get to do more of the talk- ing, make the time count. Trialling the language Following the presentation stage in which you introduce new language, you need to set up an activity or task that requires the students to focus on it. A good practice activity is one which: You can step back and make notes on any errors or teaching points that come up during the activity.
This ensures that the students concentrate on using it. This means that the students should not work individually throughout the lesson. They need to inter- act with each other. So, for example, even if the students are working on a written exercise, they should be able to compare and discuss the answers with other students in pairs or groups.
This may happen while they complete it, or afterwards. If the students are simply following a pattern they may not put much thought into it and end up not being able to use it later. Take a look at two examples in Figure The next example requires more thought because the learner has to work out which pronoun to use as well as how to change the form of the verb. Planning the Lesson 63 Bad exercise Example: Good exercise Example: Giving your students free practice By the time you reach the production stage of the lesson, the students should be fairly comfortable with the new language point.
Now, in this stage they get to practise in a freer way. In the production stage the aim is for the students to be fluent and use the language in a natural way rather than just an accurate way. They have the opportunity to use the new language point but they can decide when to use it and when to opt for something else. Storytelling is a typical activity for production exercises.
Putting Your Lesson Together report writing. In Chapter 6 I talk about ideas for practice and production activities and how to use them. Bearing in mind that the lesson is sometimes the only opportunity the student has to speak English, it would be tragic if the only person speaking is the one who already knows the language perfectly.
Much better to have them actively involved in a task or interaction. Students need to dem- onstrate understanding throughout the lesson, which means they need to speak and write.
You can employ a variety of techniques to avoid talking too much to the det- riment of your students: Whenever possible, get stu- dents to work things out for themselves.
Eliciting means asking students questions that lead them where you want them to be. So ask focused questions instead of making statements. Encourage your students to develop strategies that allow them to cope without you. For example, show them how to organise information in their notebooks in a logical fashion so that they end up with a sound reference book, instead of asking you all the time.
On your lesson plan, indicate who is speaking to whom and for how long. Plan TTT teacher talking time for no more than 30 per cent of the lesson time.
This helps maintain a good balance. Avoid rambling and overly polite language.
Try not to jump in too soon. Your students may just get there if you allow them a little more time to answer the question. Once you get the students working in pairs and groups, try not to butt in. Just listen and make notes. Chapter 5 Standing in the Spotlight: This chapter concentrates on the Presentation stage of the lesson and I show you what to include. The Presentation stage of the lesson is the shortest stage, and happens right at the beginning.
The teacher explains the new words or grammar as thor- oughly as possible using examples, definitions, pictures, tables and so on. During this stage the students should get all the information they need to use the new piece of language well and complete the tasks that follow in the Practice and Production stages.
Eliciting means getting your students to tell you what they know by using questions instead of simply giving them the information. In your mind you need to be several steps ahead of the students throughout the lesson. So the questions you ask should keep them mentally active and move them along to the next step.
Elicitation questions are generally short and snappy. For example, ask the class how to spell words, for the meaning, for examples, for similar words and opposites, what they remember about a previously taught point, and so on. You can use props and pictures if they help to clarify the meaning or add interest. Putting Your Lesson Together The pros and cons of using this technique are set out in the following list, but most teachers find it very useful.
The pros first: Passively lis- tening for extended periods is dull, so in EFL you rarely give lecture-style presentations. When you ask them questions they try to work things out spontaneously. This is a great skill because in the real world your students often have to take a stab at the meaning of words or sentences and may not have anyone there to explain. So, being prepared to have a go and guess is a good habit. As the students should do most of the talking in a lesson, eliciting allows you to reduce TTT and instead, keep students interacting with you.
Eliciting has a few drawbacks, though: Sometimes you have one student who has their hand up permanently, or who you know is pretty smart, so that one student ends up answering all the elicitation questions. This is obviously annoying for everyone else.
With these points in mind, follow a few suggestions when eliciting to make it a positive experience for your students: Chapter 5: Remember that one of the aims of eliciting is to increase student talking time.
Showing and telling — pictures and objects People learn in different ways. For example, some people learn well by listen- ing auditory learning , some by movement and touch kinaesthetic learning and many people respond well to seeing things visual learning.
These are some of the different learning styles. So having variety in your presentations gives attention to these different styles and helps everyone succeed. Things visual learners love to see in a presentation include: Not just for primary school, flashcards are good fun for adults and children alike. The traditional flashcard has a picture on the front and the equivalent word in writing on the back or below.
By holding up one side of the card you can elicit the information on the other side.
You can use flash cards for vocabulary groups such as jobs, food, ani- mals, weather and hobbies. Or how about having the infinitive verb form on the front, and the past simple and past participle on the back? Likewise, try having opposites front and back. A simple stick figure drawing is enough to make students smile and give them something to talk about. Celebrity photos seem to work particularly well in EFL lessons, perhaps because of the glamorous international flavour they give your lesson.
Save old magazines, or even catalogues, as photographs are great for explaining the meaning of a word, or setting a context. The term for real objects you use to help you teach. Students feel involved when they get to touch something or move it around. Realia works to reinforce learning for visual and kinaesthetic learners alike. I usu- ally bring in a photograph of myself aged ten, dressed in school uniform and complete with dodgy 70s hairdo.
First you find out if the students recognise you. Let them have a giggle and guess how old you are in the picture. Then tell them that you had hobbies at that age and ask students to make suggestions about what they were. Show the clues like stamps or a skipping rope. Model cars and trains are useful when you explain transport words or describe directions left, right, forwards and so on.
Travelling along timelines and tenses In TEFL and in Western cultures in general, you represent time as a straight horizontal line showing the past on the left and the future to the right. With a timeline, you can show how tenses refer to an aspect of time and compare them. So timelines are most common in a presentation of a new tense.
By using timelines you help students to understand the function of a tense — what it does basically. However, you need to highlight the form of a tense or piece of grammar too. In other words, show exactly what it looks like. Presenting to the Class 71 Showing simple tenses When you want to show that an action is in a simple tense present simple, past simple, or future simple you put an individual point on the timeline with an X or a spot and label it, as in Figure With a simple label you can elicit a statement in the past simple tense: Carrying through with continuous tenses An action in a continuous tense present continuous, past continuous and so on should occupy more space on the timeline.
Putting Your Lesson Together You can use a similar method to show an action in the present perfect that started in the past but continues into the present. In Figure , the timeline shows two actions in the past so the students can see what happened first and what happened later.
Not eat hungry Showing the past simple and perfect. You may need to alter the seating. Keep your board clutter-free at all costs. Rub off information you no longer need.
Clean the board before and after each lesson. Presenting to the Class 73 Whatever you have on the board should be legible and logical. Some good practices for board work are: You can use the board quite a few ways to make meaning clearer through dia- grams in the Presentation stage.
For example, use diagrams like the one in Figure to show clearly the relationship between items of vocabulary, including sub- ordinate groups or categories. You can have students add words to each group to demonstrate that they understand. Showing relation- Meat Carbohydrates ships on the chicken pasta board.
You could elicit from the students a temperature for each box, for example. Diagram boiling hot warm mild demonstrat- ing how weather cool cold freezing words relate. So, the way you organise words on the board can show a hierarchy or a scale from most to least, best to worst and so on.
Depending on the topic, you can draw a chart or label a diagram to give visual input.